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Abstract  

This study characterized the removal of strontium from an aqueous solution via co-precipitation followed by microfiltration (CPMF) on a lab-scale. Sodium carbonate was used as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride was added to a settler at a dosage of 20 mg/L to improve strontium removal, and it was added to a membrane separator at a dosage of 10 mg/L to reduce membrane fouling. The concentration of strontium in the raw water used in this study was about 5 mg/L. In two intermittent tests, where dosages of sodium carbonate were 2000 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, the mean decontamination factors (DFs) were 237 and 158 and the mean concentration factors (CFs) were 288 and 462, respectively. Although the mean DF value was lower when the sodium carbonate dosage was 1000 mg/L instead of 2000 mg/L, the rate at which the specific flux (SF) of the membrane declined decreased as the amount of the effluent treated increased. The problem of strontium release at the beginning of the operation was controlled by a continuous test in which the dosage of sodium carbonate still was 1000 mg/L and the other parameters were the same as in the other tests. The results showed that the mean DF and CF were 157 and 480, respectively.

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Abstract  

The liquid-liquid extraction behavior of octyldodecylsulfoxide (ODoSO) towards uranium(VI), contained in nitric acid aqueous solution, has been investigated. It was found that the extraction increased with increasing nitric acid concentration up to 2.0 mol/l and then decreased. Extraction also increases with increasing extractant concentration. The extracted species appears to be UO2(NO3)2 .2ODoSO. The influences of temperature, sodium nitrate and oxalate concentrations on the extraction were also investigated and the thermodynamic functions of the extraction reaction were obtained.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Jun Tang
,
Gengmei Xing
,
Hui Yuan
,
Xingfa Gao
,
Long Jing
,
Shukuan Wang
,
Yue Cheng
, and
Yuliang Zhao

Abstract  

The electronic properties of the metal atoms encaged in a fullerence cage were investigated using synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Systematic variations in photoemission of valence band of Gd@C82, Gd@C82(OH)12, and Gd@C82(OH)22 were observed in Gd 5p levels. The results suggest that the electronic properties of the inner metal atom can be efficiently modulated by surface chemistry of the fullerene cage.

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Abstract

This study applies bibliometric analysis to investigate the quantity and citation impact of scientific papers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The data are collected from 19 CAM journals in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database during 1980–2009, and 17,002 papers are identified for analysis. The study analyzes the document types, geographical and institutional distribution of the authorship, including international scientific collaboration. This study suggests that the major type of document is original article. The CAM papers are mostly published by North America, East Asia, and European countries, of which publications authored in East Asia are cited most. Country-wise, major contributors of CAM papers are from USA, People's Republic of China, India, England and Germany. India has the highest CPP value, attracting high attentions in CAM community. This article also finds that international co-authorship in the CAM field has increased rapidly during this period. In addition, internationally collaborated publications generate higher citation impact than papers published by authors from single country. Finally, the research identifies productive institutions in CAM, and China Medical University located in Taiwan is the most productive organization.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Jun-Ying Fu
,
Xu Zhang
,
Yun-Hua Zhao
,
Dar-Zen Chen
, and
Mu-Hsuan Huang

Abstract

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is divided into three subfields, including Chinese medicine, Chinese herb and acupuncture, attracts increasing attentions due to its challenging and significant medical values. This study employs bibliometric analysis to examine the profile of publication activity in TCM field as well as its subfields. The data are retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database during 1980–2009, and 16,536 papers are identified for analysis. Generally speaking, proportions of papers in subfield of acupuncture decreased dramatically, while the proportions of papers of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb rose increasingly. This study finds that East Asia has the largest number of TCM papers, followed by North America and Europe. Furthermore, while China is ranked first in terms of the amount of TCM publications, USA gains the highest percentage of citations. As for regional specialty, mainly, scholars in East Asia publish intensively in Chinese medicine, while most of the scholars in North America and Europe probe into the study of acupuncture. In the latest two decades, China took the first place over Japan in subfields of both Chinese medicine and Chinese herb, while the US has always kept the largest share in acupuncture with a marked upward trend. Regarding the top-ranked TCM institution, Chinese Academy of Sciences located in China, is ranked first in the subfields of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb as well. As for Kyung Hee University, which is located in South Korea, is ranked first in the number of acupuncture papers and Harvard University is ranked first in number of acupuncture citations.

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The immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine expressing the surface protein NcSRS2 of Neospora caninum was studied in BALB/c mice. The NcSRS2-encoding DNA was obtained by PCR amplification of the NcSRS2 ORF gene from the p43 plasmid encoding the N. caninum surface protein NcSRS2, ligated to the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1/Zeo(+) and propagated in E. coli DH5α to produce the N. caninum NcSRS2 DNA vaccine. BALB/c mice were immunised by two intramuscular injections of the DNA vaccine with or without complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). Serum antibody titres and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, and splenocyte proliferation and cytokine expression were measured after immunisation. The DNA vaccine induced T-cell-mediated immunity as shown by significantly increased NO concentrations, cytokine gene (IL-2 and IFN-γ) expression, and NcSRS2 protein-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in mice immunised with the DNA vaccine. The vaccine also induced weak humoral immunity. The immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine was slightly enhanced by CFA. The immune response was specific to NcSRS2. No immune response was observed in mice immunised with the pcDNA3.1/Zeo(+) vector alone.

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Abstract  

The liquid-liquid extraction behavior of uranium(VI) from aqueous nitric acid with bis(octylsulfinyl)ethane (BOSE) in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane has been studied over a wide range of conditions. The extracted species appears to be UO2(NO3)2·2BOSE. It was found that the extraction increases with increasing nitric acid concentration up to 7 mol/l and then decreased. Extraction also increases with increasing extractant concentration. The influence of temperature and salting-out agent concentration on the extraction equilibrium and stripping of uranium(VI) was also investigated and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction was obtained.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Cheng-Li Jiao
,
Li-Fang Song
,
Chun-Hong Jiang
,
Jian Zhang
,
Xiao-Liang Si
,
Shu-Jun Qiu
,
Shuang Wang
,
Li-Xian Sun
,
Fen Xu
,
Fen Li
, and
Ji-Jun Zhao

Abstract

The low-temperature molar heat capacity of crystalline Mn3(HEDTA)2·10H2O was measured by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy relative to 298.15 K were calculated based on the above molar heat capacity data. The compound was characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR spectrum. Moreover, the thermal decomposition characteristics of Mn3(HEDTA)2·10H2O were investigated by thermogravimetry–mass spectrometer (TG–MS). The experimental result through TG measurement shows that a three-step mass loss process exists. H2O, CO2, NO, and NO2 were observed as products for oxidative degradation of Mn3(HEDTA)2·10H2O from the MS curves.

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Abstract

A rapid and simple method for the determination of stearic acid and 12-hydroxystearic acid in PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil by high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection was established. The oil sample was first pretreated by alkaline hydrolysis. The analysis was performed on a Zhongpu Develop XD-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with gradient elution of methanol and 1% acetic acid aqueous solution at a flow rate of 1.2 mL·min−1 and a column temperature of 40 °C. The drift tube temperature of the evaporative light scattering detection system was set at 40 °C, and the pressure of carrier gas (N2) was 337 kPa. The regression equation revealed a good linear relation (r = 0.9993–0.9995) during the test ranges (119.1–1190.7 μg·mL−1 for 12-hydroxystearic acid, 10.7–107.4 μg·mL−1 for stearic acid). The detection limits of 12-hydroxystearic acid and stearic acid were 1.1 and 2.5 μg·mL−1, the limits of quantitation were 3.2 and 7.4 μg·mL−1, respectively. And the mean recoveries were 101.5 and 101.0%, the corresponding relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The RSDs corresponding to repeatability (n = 6) were both less than 1.7% in terms of precision. As to the stability, the test results remained stable after 8 h at room temperature (RSDs were both less than 2.6%). The developed method showed high sensitivity, recovery, repeatability and stability, which indicated that the method could be applied as a quality evaluation method for the determination of stearic acid and 12-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid in PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil.

Open access
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Yan Chen
,
Zhi-yuan Chang
,
Yong-gang Zhao
,
Ji-long Zhang
,
Jing-huai Li
, and
Fu-jun Shu

Abstract  

An isotope dilution multicollector inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-MC-ICP-MS) method for determining age of trace Pu through measuring 241Pu/241Am, 240Pu/236U ratio was established. At the same time, other two methods-α-spectrometry combined with MC-ICP-MS and liquid scintillator combined with α-spectrometry through measuring 241Pu/241Am ratio to determine the age of trace Pu were also studied. The techniques were explored for the age determination of nanogram grade Pu sample on the basis of Pu/Am, Pu/U separation. The ages of two Pu samples—one with known and the other with unknown age—were determined by the three methods. The determined ages by the three methods were all in agreement with the reference value. The established methods for determining the age of trace Pu could be adopted in the verification activities of nuclear safeguards and nuclear arms control.

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