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Biologia Futura
Kálmán Czeibert
Attila Andics
Örs Petneházy
, and
Enikő Kubinyi

Background and aims

Dogs have recently become an important model species for comparative social and cognitive neuroscience. Brain template-related label maps are essential for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, to localize neural responses. In this study, we present a detailed, individual-based, T1-weighted MRI-based brain label map used in dog neuroimaging analysis.


A typical, medium-headed dog (a 7.5-year-old male Golden Retriever) was selected from a cohort of 22 dogs, based on brain morphology (shape, size, and gyral pattern), to serve as the template for a label map.


Eighty-six 3-dimensional labels were created to highlight the main cortical (cerebral gyri on the lateral and medial side) and subcortical (thalamus, caudate nucleus, amygdala, and hippocampus) structures of the prosencephalon and diencephalon, and further main parts of brainstem (mesencephalon and rhombencephalon).


Importantly, this label map is (a) considerably more detailed than any available dog brain template; (b) it is easy to use with freeware and commercial neuroimaging software for MRI and fMRI analysis; and (c) it can be registered to other existing templates, including a recent average-based dog brain template. Using the coordinate system and label map proposed here can enhance precision and standard localization during future canine neuroimaging studies.

Open access


In this study we described two different indications of ventriculo- and cystoperitoneal shunting (VPS, CPS) procedures in six dogs, including their clinical data and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. One dog had moderate and two dogs had severe congenital hydrocephalus, one was presented with intracranial pressure elevation due to meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO) associated with congenital hydrocephalus, and two with quadrigeminal cysts (QC). VPS procedures were done in four and CPS in two dogs, using low-pressure valve systems. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 6 months and control MRI scans were also made. Significant improvement was detected in five cases during the short-term follow-up period (1 month) and in four cases in the medium-term follow-up (2–6 months). Major complications were found in two cases: one dog with acute-hypertensive hydrocephalus died one week after surgery, and in another case development of a chronic subdural haematoma and hygroma caused death 3 months after the surgery. Minor complications (e.g. subdural hygroma) were found in two cases. In cases of severe hydrocephalus a higher-pressure valve system is recommended in order to prevent subdural hygroma. In cases of intracranial cyst a low-pressure valve is used because the cyst is an altered area inside the skull and its complete reduction is recommended. Transient postoperative clinical signs usually resolve within one week after the surgery.

Open access