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In this paper I discuss Hungarian progressive as it is expressed in focus-free sentences whose VP possibly contains a particle (verbal prefix). I define three simple distributional tests on the basis of which logical correspondences between certain types of expressions are established. These correspondences are then used to refute the hypothesis that the progressive in Hungarian is a stativizer. Finally, I take a broader look at the possibility of predicting the existence of the progressive reading in the case of particle plus verb complexes..

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The first 60-min phase of inflammatory ascites formation was studied by intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered macromolecular inducers: yeast cell wall zymosan binds to specific macrophage receptors, polyethyleneimine (PEI) and concanavalin A (ConA), produces non-covalent cross-links on the surface of various cells, while λ-carrageenan may function as a contact activator. Depletion of peritoneal macrophages was performed by overnight pretreatment with diphtheria toxin in transgenic mice, resulting in a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the induced formation of ascitic fluid. It was shown that induced ascites is mediated partly (PEI, ConA, and carrageenan) or completely (zymosan) by peritoneal macrophages. Inhibition of prostanoid synthesis with indomethacine or of the kallikrein/bradykinin system with aprotinin also produced a significant (p < 0.01) but incomplete inhibition. A slight additivity occurred between the different inhibitory effects. In another series of experiments, the i.p. administration of bradykinin (without a macromolecular inducer) also produced marked ascites, which was not affected by macrophage depletion. The origin of the macrophage-independent part of the induced ascites is best explained by the deformation of the mesothelial cell surface, resulting in signal transfer to the underlying endothelium and the passage of ascitic fluid in the opposite direction. The soluble mediators are represented by prostanoids, bradykinin and other, unidentified agonists.

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The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

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The effect of pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O83 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on concanavalin A-induced ascites was examined. The LPS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) in different doses to mice, and then ascites was induced by i.p. administration of concanavalin A (ConA) (25 mg/kg b.w.). After 2.5 h the mice were killed and the ascitic fluid was collected and measured. The LPS produced a marked and dose-dependent inhibition of ConA-induced ascites and the effect of pre-treatment lasted up to almost a week. Complete inhibition could not be achieved. If administered alone, LPS did not produce ascites.It is well known that LPS enhances vascular permeability in several tissues, but the present work shows that peritoneal permeability is not enhanced by this agent. Suppression of ConA-induces ascites may be explained by the hypotonic effect of LPS.

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Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured.

The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective.

It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein.

Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.

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The activities of the UN Security Council after the 11 September attacks provided subject for an extensive theoretic debate on the ongoing ‘transformation’ of international law. Whether and how much international terrorism constitutes a new (legal) threat and whether the current system of international law is appropriate to respond to these threats, has been analysed in many studies.However, another aspect also deserves an in-depth examination; two resolutions of the UN Security Council [1373 (2001) and 1540(2004)] imposing general-abstract legal obligations, including the obligation to adopt certain domestic legal norms, for all the member States of the UN. That is to say, for the first time, the Security Council assumed legislative powers, practically, for the whole membership. Nevertheless, so far the adoption of legislative measures remained rather exceptional, the issue shall not be left ignored. The study focuses on the basic question, namely whether the Security Council has the power to adopt legislative measures-on the established basis of the notion of ‘legislation’.

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Abstract  

The Viennese Ma (May 1920 to June 1925) is seen today as one of the most important journals of the so-called classical avant-garde. Its influence on the international avant-garde movement in the 1920s and also later is well known. Apart from these very general observations, there have hardly been any more in-depth discussions on the journal. In a number of academic studies the authors examined the relation between Ma, or the members of the group associated with Ma, and its Viennese environment. A consensus was more or less reached that neither the circle in Vienna nor the journal had any real echo. These studies base their arguments on testimonies such as the reminiscences of those involved with the journal and newspaper reports from that time. The present essay explores the same question by analyzing the German-language texts published in the journal Ma to show the image of the journal and of the group that emerged for contemporaries who did not speak Hungarian. For the first time a scholarly study seeks to show what exactly was rejected by readers in Vienna between 1920 and 1925.

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Summary  

The Illumination Conjecture was raised independently by Boltyanski and Hadwiger in 1960. According to this conjecture any \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $d$ \end{document} -dimensional convex body can be illuminated by at most \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $2^d$ \end{document} light sources. This is an important fundamental problem. The paper surveys the state of the art of the Illumination Conjecture.

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