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Apple is one of the most important fruit grown and consumed in the temperate climate region. About 2% of the European population suffers from several allergenic reactions after consumption. Presence of 7 members of Mal d 1 gene family occurring in some apples was examined by PCR. The Mal d 1.01 and 1.02 genes could be detected from 91% and 79% of apple cultivars, respectively, due to the high degree of conservative regions. The Mal d 1.04 gene has 4 functional varieties and 2 pseudo-alleles, so it is highly variable. The PCR amplifi cation with Mal d 1.06 primers gave one or two fragments with different sizes. The electrophoretic pattern is a suitable means to select apple cultivars according to their low, medium, or high Mal d 1 allergen content. Florina apple showed the single 154 bp allele, which is responsible for the small Mal d 1 allergen content in homozygote form..
Several samples gave weak signal or did not give any fragment-band on the gel, so Mal d 1.07 and 1.08 genes might have more varieties. Regarding the Mal d 1.09 gene we have found that it has conservative sequences in different apple cultivars and does not have too many varieties.
Periphyton spamles from the reed-belt and phytoplankton samples were taken in November 1996 and in January, April, July 1997 at the upper part of the Soroksár-Danube (the second largest side arm of river Danube in Hungary) at Taksony, and in July, November 1998, January, April 1999 at the middle part of the side arm at Ráckeve. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal and vertical distribution of periphyton growing on old and green reed stemps at both parts of the side arm, focussed on taxonomic composition, abundance and chlorophyll a content. Based on the chloropyll a content of the phytoplankton the upper part of the side arm at Taksony was oligotrophic in November an July (in July caused by a flood), mesotrophic in Januray and eutrophic in April. The middle part of the Soroksár-Danube was eutrophic in April and July, oligotrophic in November and January at Ráckeve The values of abundance and chlorophyll a of periphyton were the highest at the middle part of Soroksár-Danube, while that of phytoplankton was the highest at the upper part. A few diamonts showed the same distribution along the reed stems. Relative abudance of Amphora libyca, Cocconeis placentula and Eunotia arcus increased close to the bottom, while that of Fomphonema minutum, G. paravulum, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia dissipata decreased.
Benthic diatom investigations of some Hungarian streams have been carried out in order to find reference sites in assistance to the ecological quality analysis of the different river types according to the Hungarian river typology. On the basis of the coevaluation of biological and chemical parameters, among the investigated streams, some part of Kemence stream seems to be the appropriate reference site for the classification of the highland, siliceous rivers of Hungary. However, further invastigations are needed for the selection of reference sites for the other types of Hungarian river typology. This is the most difficult in the case of lowland rivers, which are exposed to more severe anthropogenic impacts. Important is the question which biological parameters should be investigated and considered when assessing the ecological condition of our waters. In the United States, e.g. the assessment of the relative abundance of Achnanthidium minutissimum is quite widespread (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), the extent of which indicates the level of disturbance. The use of this method is hampered, on one hand, by the fact that A. minutissimum is an early coloniser species which means that if we do not take samples from mature periphyton, we might find it dominant simply because of that, and, on the other hand, that distinguishing between the species varieties is not always unambiguous under light microscope because of its small size, and these can have different ecological needs. It is also recommended to calculate species richness, diversity and evenness (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), but based on our investigations these parameters are not in correlation with water quality. Investigation of other diatom features such as tolerance and sensitivity, some autecological parameters (as it was applied and recommended by Fore and Grafe 2002 for investigating the reaction of diatom associations to anthropogenic disturbances) might also be useful in completing the water quality analysis of rivers, however, these methods need further investigations. Some of the indices (EPI-D, IPS, IBD) calculated with the software Omnidia are suitable for the classification of our rivers, but the investigation of more rivers, flowing through different types of stone are necessary to choose the appropriate indices. The reason for this is that the different indices work with a different register of species and obviously those indices will prove to be suitable the species register of which shows the highest similarity to the diatom associations of the certain water type.
Authors:E. Szabó, É. Gelencsér, E. Kovács, A. Jánosi, K. Takács and E. Kiss
In our research we studied the occurrence of the main apple allergen coding gene-families (Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, Mal d 4) in 16 different and most preferably consumed apple varieties. After the DNA isolation by Wizard method the simple PCR reaction was used to examine the apple allergen-coding genes. To identify the presence of the four allergenic protein-coding genes two primer pairs were chosen. The presence of these allergens in most apple varieties could be confirmed. According to our results two varieties — Jonathan and Granny Smith — were found to contain the lowest amount of the coding genes of the allergenic apple proteins studied by us. Besides this, polymorph pattern was obtained by the use of Mal d 1 primer, which may lead to determine apple varieties with small amount of Mal d 1 allergens.The confirmation study of the presence of potential apple allergens by RNA and protein techniques is our plan in the near future.
Authors:G. Sohár, E. Pallagi, P. Szabó-Révész and K. Tóth
Osteoarthritis, although classically conceived of as a degenerative consequence of aging, is a disease with an increasingly
well-characterized molecular pathophysiology. Pathologic changes in cartilage composition and molecular organization, as well
as elevated water content, alter the exquisite balance of biomechanical properties. Much of what is known about changes in
the extracellular matrix in osteoarthritis comes from animal models.
Previously, thermogravimetric methods have not been used for compositional thermoanalytical study of normal and degenerative
human hyaline cartilage. For this reason the research group established a sufficient new thermogravimetric protocol, which
proved water content elevation contributing to disease progression.
Authors:B. Cserháti, K. Juhos, A. Begyik, P. Radácsi, É. Németh and K. Szabó
Wild Origanum vulgare populations in Hungary have been analysed. In 2010 the morphological variability of 11 populations in five shires was investigated, the features of habitats were also described. The difference in elevation between the lowest and highest locality is 630 m. Nine plant associations, four soil types, variable pH between 4.81–7.96 and humus content from 0.54% to 6.97% were determined. Among the examined individual plants the maximum length of stem was 107 cm, the highest number of branches was 14 pairs, furthermore procumbent and mellow stems were also found. The defined colours of inflorescences are dyes of pink or purple. Despite to these we found individuals in one population with white flowers, green bracts and calyces.
Authors:É. Ács, N. M. Reskóné, K. Szabó, Gy. Taba and K. T. Kiss
The suitability of benthic diatoms in the biological monitoring program of the water quality of Lake Velence was tested. Diatom indices were calculated with the aid of the software Omnidia based on reed periphyton samples collected between 1988 and 1990, and 1999 to 2004. We have pointed out which indices are appropriate for indicating the water quality changes of Lake Velence. The correlation between the indices IBD, IPS, IDG, and the total nitrogen, total phosphorus content of the water and chlorophyll-a content of the periphyton was calculated. Significant negative correlation was found between the indices and the total phosphorus content of the water. Moreover, we concluded that the chlorophyll-a content of the periphyton related to surface area can also provide information about the water quality. Based on these results the index IBD seems to be the most suitable for the water quality analysis of Lake Velence. Recommendations are provided here concerning the ecological status classification of Lake Velence based on epiphytic diatoms; unaccounted questions and future assignments are also outlined in connection with this.