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  • Author or Editor: K. Özkan x
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In our study, the protective effects of vitamin E and Se (selenium) against cigarette smoke hazards on second-hand smoker (passive smoker) male mice (Balb/c) were investigated. Serum MDA levels in the smoke-exposed mice were found higher than serum MDA levels of control mice and Se- and vitamin E-treated mice. But, the MDA levels of smoke-exposed plus Se- and vitamin E-treated mice were found lower than MDA levels of smoke-exposed mice at the end of the three and five months. According to these results, application of vitamin E and Se, when given to smoke-exposed mice together, had an additive protective effect against cigarette smoke hazards (p<0.05). Vitamin E also had protective effect on formation of 8-OHdG in smoke-exposed mice. The serum 8-OHdG amounts of smoke-exposed plus vitamin E-treated mice were found low, but the serum 8-OHdG amounts of smoke-exposed mice were found high. Also 8-OHdG levels in the serum of the smoke-exposed mice were increased which occurs as a result of DNA oxidation (p<0.05). At the end of the three and five months, COMT (catechol-o-methyl transferase) activity of smoke-exposed mice livers were increased but, vitamin E and/or Se showed a significant protective effect on changing of COMT activity only at the end of the 5 months. Our results showed that MDA levels and 8-OHdG amounts were increased in the serum of smoke-exposed mice. On the other hand, vitamin E and Se had an additive protective effect against increasing MDA level. Also vitamin E had a protective effect against formation of 8-OHdG amounts and COMT activity alterations.

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Abstract

In this work, functional liquorice powder beverage (FLPB) with standardised glycyrrhizin (GL), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), carbenoxolone (CBX), and liquiritin (LQ) contents, was produced by encapsulating Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with maltodextrin (MD) by spray drying. Encapsulation parameters of the FLPB were optimised as MD:GL 3.4:1, inlet temperature: 149 °C, and air flow: 8.9 L min−1. GL, GA, LQ, CBX, and yield in powdered beverage produced using these optimised parameters were 6.8 g L−1, 81.1 mg L−1, 24.7 mg L−1, 0.79 g L−1, and 30.95%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the encapsulation on the bioaccessibility of GL, GA, CBX, and LQ bioactives in G. glabra was evaluated. According to the obtained results, FLPB exhibited a higher bioaccessibility index for GL, GA, CBX, and LQ compared to the aqueous extract.

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Abstract

Fresh thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were dried at 45 °C for 5 h and naturally fermented at 20 °C in a brine solution containing salt and vinegar for 18 days. The ethanolic extracts of fresh (FT), dried (DT), and fermented-pickled (PT) thyme leaves were assessed in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant capacity values and subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. TPC, TFC, and antioxidant capacity values of fermented thyme leaves were found significantly higher than of dried and fresh samples. The bioaccessibility index (BI) value for TPC and TFC was highest for PT and lowest for DT, indicating that both processes had different effects on the structure of phenolic compounds present in the thyme leaves. Similarly both Recovery and BI values of DPPH antioxidant capacity were highest for PT, but lowest for fresh samples. When CUPRAC assay was applied, the recovery % for FT and PT was similar, and the BI was higher for FT. Results showed that compared to the results of fresh thyme leaves, drying and pickling had a considerable effect on the initial phenolic compounds extracted and their fate during in vitro digestion.

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