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  • Author or Editor: K. Bányai x
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Studies on plant development phases and yield component patterns of wheat are essential for a better understanding of adaptation in wheat. Our main aim was to carry out detailed phenological analyses of 18 wheat genotypes in three sowing times for determining the effect of sowing date on individual phenophases, and yield components. Sowing date had the single greatest effect on the start of intensive stem elongation. The longer vegetation period had a favourable effect on main spike length and on the spikelet number per spike, but had no influence on thousand-kernel weight and grain number per spike. The time between the first node appearance and start of intensive stem elongation had a significant effect on the number of reproductive tillers. A close association (R2 = 0.191) was observed during the second phase of intensive stem elongation between the boot stage-to-heading interval and the number of spikelets per spike. Two-way analysis of variance on the yield components showed that the sowing date, as a main factor, had a weaker effect on the phenophases than on morphological and developmental parameters. The insensitive allele of the Ppd-D1 gene shortened the time required for first node appearance and heading both in autumn and spring sowing.

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The yield potential of wheat depends not only on genetic × environmental interactions, but also on various agronomic factors such as sowing date or the seed rate used for sowing. The main aim of this work was to determine possible correlations between the effects of different sowing dates and plant densities on the yield components of a collection of 48 wheat genotypes. Two-way analysis of variance on the data revealed that both sowing date and plant density, as main components, only had a minor effect on the yield component patterns. Correlation analysis, however, indicated that the sowing date had a greater effect on the yield components, while plant density was in closer correlation with the heading time (r = 0.90). The patterns determined for individual yield components at two different sowing dates and plant densities showed significant differences for spike length, spike fertility, grain number in the main spike, number of productive tillers, grain number on side tillers, mean grain number and grain weight. Genotypes that carry the winter (recessive) alleles of genes regulating vernalisation processes (VRN-A1, VRN-B1, VRN-D1) and the sensitive (recessive) alleles of the two genes responsible for photoperiod sensitivity (PPD-B1, PPD-D1) may have better tillering and consequently higher grain yield, though this may depend greatly on the year.

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In anticipation of a future vaccination program against rotavirus disease, a longitudinal survey has been set up to evaluate the epidemiologic features of rotavirus infections. In this report hospitalisation data and serotyping results are compiled from an epidemiologic survey conducted in Baranya County, Hungary. It was found that rotavirus-associated hospitalisation constituted a major part of infectious gastroenteritis cases (range, 14.9% to 28.5%). A higher proportion of rotavirus-positive cases was recorded when the serotype of predominant strains changed from G1 (1996-1999) to G4 (1999-2000), however, due to the short time period it was not possible to demonstrate a firm association between serotype prevalence and rotavirus-associated hospitalisation rate. In the future, such studies might help to understand if serotype-specific immunity against rotavirus infection plays an important role at the population level and if (re-)emerging rotavirus strains make an impact on the annual disease burden.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: J. Bányai, P. Szűcs, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, Cs. Kuti, L. Láng, and Z. Bedő

A total of 96 winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars registered in Hungary were analysed using 15 wheat microsatellite markers located on different chromosome arms. Analyses revealed 91 SSR alleles with sizes ranging from 123–239 base pairs. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (Gwm664 and Gwm415) to 11 (Gwm219) with an average number of 6.1. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 with an average number of 0.60 for all markers. Several markers included allele sizes characteristic of a single or a small number of cultivars. At most 9 SSR markers were required to distinguish the 96 cultivars, so the simple sequence repeats could serve as a relatively cheap, rapid method for identifying winter wheat cultivars.

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In the present study, heat treatment was carried out in five different phenological phases, from the first node detectable (DEV31) growth stage to 20 days after flowering, on four wheat genotypes with very different adaptation strategies. They were grown in a controlled environment in a phytotron chamber and exposed to a night temperature of 20°C and a day temperature of either 30°C, at DEV31, or 35°C at all the later developmental phases, for an interval of 14 days. Plant height, leaf number, number of tillers, grain number and grain weight per main and side spikes, TKW per main and side spikes, length of the main and side spikes, and spikelet number per main and side spikes were recorded. High temperature enhanced the stem growth intensity, plant height and tiller number. In contrast, the length of side spikes, spikelet no./side spike, grain no./main and side spike, grain weight/main and side spike and TKW/main and side spike were significantly decreased. The stress response depended strongly on the developmental phase in which the heat stress was applied. Fleischmann 481 and Soissons showed definitely contrasting tendencies both in grain number and grain weight. In the case of the Plainsman V and Mv Magma pair, the higher heat stress tolerance of Magma compared to Plainsman V was evident also from the grain number and weight of the main spike at each developmental phase.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Váli, H. Fébel, É. Stefanovits-Bányai, É. Sárdi, A. Lugasi, K. Szentmihályi, and A. Blázovics

Dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may have beneficial effect on survival of the patients. Table beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra) contains bioactive agents, which have a wide range of different physiologic effects. These agents have beneficial antioxidant properties. The aim in the present study was to determine the gut protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the rat liver. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power and free SH-group concentracion were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry in duodenum and plasma. Lyophilized table beet increased significantly the free radical scavenging property of the plasma measured by chemiluminometry. Other antioxidant parameters of the plasma increased in rats fed table beet diet, and change in reducing power was significant. Beneficial effect of the treatment was found in changes of total scavenger capacity of the duodenum during ischaemia-reperfusion injury. H-donating ability and reducing power of the gut decreased in the table beet-fed group during ischaemia-reperfusion compared to normal group with ischaemia-reperfusion. Based on these data, it can be concluded that table beet can protect the entire body from the oxidative damage caused by ischaemia-reperfusion of the liver, but the effect of table beet treatment on gut mucosa needs further investigation.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: E. Rapavi, K. Szentmihályi, A. Lugasi, E. Vági, É. Bányai, A. Balázs, É. Szőke, and A. Blázovics

The different methods of making herbal tea used in various cultures may decrease the efficiency of herbal tea, therefore the purpose of the present study was to examine the changes in antioxidant activity and metal ion concentration in aqueous extracts of “Tieguanyin Stomach Tea” obtained with different steeping times. Partial phytochemical examination, element analysis, and the determination of antioxidant properties were carried out. High Al, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Ti content was observed in the tea drug. Aqueous extracts of the drug sample showed H-donor activity, reducing power and scavenging activity, depending on the steeping time and concentration. According to our findings, 5-min steeping was the least effective and redox parameters of the aqueous extracts did not change considerably between 15 and 120 min of steeping time.

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To screen fecal samples for adenovirus antigens a genus-specific monoclonal antibody based enzyme immunoassay was developed. In a comparative analysis with commercial latex agglutination test, high sensitivity was demonstrated. The assay did not detect other viruses usually found in faeces suggesting its specificity. One hundred and eighty stool samples collected in Baranya County were tested and 13 (7.2%) of them showed reactivity. The application of our immunoassay combined with other, more sophisticated methods may help us to determine the serotype specificity of these adenovirus isolates and assess the importance of adenoviruses in viral gastroenteritis.

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The objectives of this publication are to present a production technology which is a finishing production of conical worm using changing of centre distance between the worm and the grinding wheel and banking angle correction at the same time. We will determine the necessary optimum grinding wheel profiles for the manufacturing in light of the production tolerances. We will determine the function connections between the main production parameters.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: N. Regéczy, L. Kormos, Cs. M. Szigetvári, É. Torbágyi, M. Hajdu, L. Gopcsa, A. Bányai, and K. Pálóczi

Reaction patterns of the 7th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop blind panel adhesion molecules were studied on CD3/CD4, CD3/CD8, CD3/TCRγδ double positive T cells from peripheral blood of patients with chronic graft versus host disease (n=8) and healthy controls (n=4). Reactivity of 14 adhesion antibodies was tested by threecolour immunophenotyping. The mean proportion of CD3+ T cells (69±19%), CD3/CD8++ (31±13%) and CD3/TCRγδ++ (4±2%) T sub-populations of patients were comparable with the healthy controls. However, the mean percentage of CD3/CD4++ T cell subset in patients (14±12%) proved to be significantly decreased in comparison with the normal control value (34±16%) presumably due to secondary immunodeficiency. The workshop antibodies proved to be reactive with three T cell subsets expressing the examined antigens. Based on the results of the adhesion molecule workshop new CD categories have been introduced: CD156b as a transmembrane protein, CD167a as an epithelial tyrosin kinase receptor, CD168 as a receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM) and CD171 as a co-stimulatory adhesion molecule. There were significant differences in the expression of the CD167a and CD156b antigens on the CD3/CD4++ subset between the samples of patients compared with the controls characterizing the CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulation in chronic graft versus host disease.

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