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  • Author or Editor: K. Berecz x
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The rich assortment of maize cultivars available in Hungary as the result of genetic research can only be recommended to crop growers in the full knowledge of their responses to nutritional effects in the given agro-ecological region. The nutrient responses of eight different maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids differing in the duration of the vegetation period (FAO 200-430) were studied in field fertilisation trials conducted in four different agro-ecological regions of Hungary. Four treatments were applied: 1) minimum NPK dose, 2) NPK dose corresponding to the nutrient requirements of maize, 3) NPK dose exceeding the nutrient requirements of maize, 4) farmyard manure (FYM). The NPK contents of the grains were measured in addition to the grain yields. In most cases, a nutrient supply exceeding the demand of the maize plants did not result in significantly higher grain, nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium yields at any of the sites. Compared with the minimum mineral fertiliser dose, FYM did not result in higher grain, nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium yields; in fact, these parameters were significantly lower in some cases. Considerable site and cultivar differences could be detected in the experimental parameters. The nutrient responses discussed here could be of assistance in choosing the most productive hybrids and the optimum range of nutrient supply for the sites involved in the experiments.

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In wheat production, N fertilisation is one of the most effective agro-technical devices to increase yield and N concentration. In Hungary, fertiliser use, particularly that of N, has dropped dramatically in the last decade. The aim of this experiment was to study the direct and residual effect of N fertilisation on the grain yield and N uptake of winter wheat after 30 years of intensive N fertilisation. A long-term fertilisation experiment was set up on brown forest soil (Eutric Cambisol) with medium N status at Keszthely (Hungary) in 1965. In 1995, the plots were halved. From that year on, half of the plots no longer received N fertiliser, while the other half of the plots was fertilised with increasing N doses. Two years after the treatment modification, no residual effect of long-term intensive N fertilisation (10.44 t N/30 years) could be detected. Under the investigated site conditions, the omission of yearly N fertilisation led to low wheat yields and low N concentrations both in the grains and in the vegetative organs above the uppermost internode.

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The long-term effect of N and P fertilisation on the grain yield, yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat was studied for different sites in the National Long-term Fertilisation Trials in Hungary. This network of small-plot fertilisation experiments has been maintained since 1967 in nine different agro-ecological regions of the country. Increasing P and N doses had a considerable effect on the grain yield, yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat according to the results evaluated in the first 20-year average of the experiments. However, these effects differed depending on the agro-ecological conditions of the sites. Yield increases could be detected at lower fertiliser doses, and improvement in quality parameters at higher rates.

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The long-term effect of N and P fertilisation on the grain yield, yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat was studied for different sites in the National Long-term Fertilisation Trials in Hungary. This network of small-plot fertilisation experiments has been maintained since 1967 in nine different agro-ecological regions of the country. Increasing P and N doses had a considerable effect on the grain yield, yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat according to the results evaluated in the first 20-year average of the experiments. However, these effects differed depending on the agro-ecological conditions of the sites. Yield increases could be detected at lower fertiliser doses, and improvement in quality parameters at higher rates.

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Increasing doses of farmyard manure (FYM) or equivalent mineral NPK fertilizers and their combinations were analysed in a crop rotation with potato, maize and winter wheat with special regard to their long-term influence on soil fertility. The yield-increasing capacity of FYM doses was only 82%, as compared to the equivalent amount of mineral NPK. Fairly high N release (50.9 kg ha −1 ) could be observed on the unfertilized plots. Great differences in N utilization were recorded, depending on the form and dose of fertilizers. The average N utilization from FYM was only 29.3%, while that of the equivalent fertilizer application was 49.8%. The lowest soil reactions were observed without fertilization and at the highest NPK doses. Negative N balances generally resulted in low soil organic matter content. FYM and equivalent NPK fertilizers had a similar influence on the ammonium lactate (AL)-extractable K 2 O content of the soil, while an increase in the AL-P 2 O 5 content could be observed in the case of mineral fertilization.

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large-pot model experiments were conducted with maize under greenhouse conditions with the aim of studying the effect of different N fertiliser forms, water supplies and crop residues on the nitrogenous gas production in the rooting zone. Nitrogen fertiliser was applied in the form of KNO3 or NH4Cl. The experiment was done at two soil moisture levels, with or without the incorporation of maize crop residues into the soil, and with or without test plants. Gas traps were placed in the pots at a soil depth of 20 cm. During the growing season, the trapped soil air was analysed for NOx, N2O and N2. Practically the same N amounts evolved in the soil air with both chemical forms of N fertiliser at both soil moisture levels. expressed as a percentage of fertiliser N, the total amount of gaseous N evolved averaged 12.8% and 12.9% in the planted, and 23.8% and 24.3% in the unplanted pots with KNO3 and NH4Cl fertiliser, respectively. Higher soil moisture and the incorporation of crop residues resulted in higher NOx-N and N2O-N ratios within the total gaseous N evolved in the rooting zone.

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