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  • Author or Editor: K. Bhattacharyya x
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Thermal characteristics of the molybdates of magnesium (MgMoO4 · 2H2O), manganese (MnMoO4 · 1.5H2O) and silver (Ag2MoO4) have been studied by DTA and TG techniques. The thermal curves of MgMoO4 · 2H2O show two endothermic changes at 195° and 390° followed by an exothermic change at 420°C. The endothermic changes represent the stepwise dehydration of MgMoO4 · 2H2O to MgMoO4 · H2O and from MgMoO4 · H2O to MgMoO4. X-ray diffraction and IR studies, however, reveal that magnesium molybdate does not undergo any type of decomposition up to 900° and the exo-peak at 420° is clearly due to crystallization.

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Physicochemical properties of bismuth vanadate catalysts with varying compositions, e.g., Bi4V6O21-6 1/2H2O·12 1NH3; Bi6V2O14·3 H2O; Bi6V4O19·6 H2O have been studied by chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, infrared, X-ray diffraction, surface area and magnetic susceptibility techniques.

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Thermal characteristics of the vanadates of zinc, manganese and silver have been studied by DTA and TG techniques and the different transition products thus obtained have been characterised by IR, X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility data. Chemical analyses indicate the following compositions of these vanadates: (1) Zn2V2O7.5H2O, (2) Zn3(VO4)2.3H2O, (3) Mn(VO3)2.2H2O and (4) Ag3VO4. The DTA curves indicate that zinc pyrovanadate undergoes endothermic changes at 110–195, 265, 365, 440, 660° and one exothermic change at 485°. This system is diamagnetic which becomes completely paramagnetic after 660°. Zinc orthovanadate exhibits a number of endothermic peaks at 300, 470, 700, 815 and 930° respectively. This system is feebly paramagnetic and retains this property up to 930°. Manganese metavanadate undergoes endothermic changes at 240, 280–590, 830 and 880° respectively. This vanadate is paramagnetic and paramagnetism increases appreciably at 590° and remains constant up 830°. Silver orthovanadate exhibits three endothermic changes at 180, 455 and 640°, respectively.

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The authors have reviewed the salient features of the thermal behavior of the following systems:(A)Single oxide systems: (i) Cr2O3, (ii) Fe2O3, (iii) Al2O3, (iv) MnO2, (v) ZrO2, (vi) NiO, (vii) ZnO, (viii) TiO2, (ix) SiO2, (x) ThO2.(B)Binary oxide systems: (i) Cr2O3-Al2O3, (ii) Cr2O3-Fe2O3, (iii) Cr2O3-ZnO, (iv) Al2O3-SiO2, (v) Al2O3-Fe2O3, (vi) MnO-Cr2O3, (vii) Cu-Al2O3, (viii) ZrO2-Cr2O3, (ix) NiO-Cr2O3, (x) ZrO2-NiO, (xi) ThO2-Al2O3.(C)Ternary oxide systems: (i) NiO-Cr2O3-ZrO2, (ii) Fe2O3-Cr2O3-Al2O3.(D)Vanadates: (i) tin vanadate, (ii) copper vanadate, (iii) lead vanadate, (iv) cobalt vanadate and (v) silver vanadate.

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Abstract  

Dilute aqueous solutions of cytosine were irradiated with60Co -rays under N2O saturated conditions at different pH and in the presence of Cu(II) ions at neutral pH. The base degradation decreased from neutral to acidic and basic conditions. In the presence of metal ions at neutral pH conditions there was a significant increase in the base degradation compared to that in the absence of metal ions under similar conditions. From the difference absorption spectra and fluorescence behavior of the irradiated solutions it was observed that the major radiolytic products of cytosine under different conditions are cytosine glycols, 5-hydroxycytosine, hydroxy-hydrocytosine and cytosine dimers. The yields of dimers is maximum in neutral conditions and it decreased from basic to acidic conditions. However, in the presence of Cu(II) ions formation of cytosine dimers is completely restricted and there is an increase in the yields of cytosine glycol, hydroxy-hydrocytosine and 5-hydroxycytosine. From the post-radiolytic changes in absorption and fluorescence behavior of irradiated solutions, it is revealed that some of the radiolytic products, namely cytosine glycol and hydroxy-hydrocytosine decompose to 5-hydroxycytosine and cytosine, respectively.

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Arsenic, the toxic metalloid, widely available in the natural ecosystem, poses serious problem through contaminated groundwater and drinking water. The emerging areas of arsenic hazards in agricultural systems through use of contaminated irrigation water and entry of toxin in crops has been largely overlooked. Arsenic accumulation by plants and its translocation to edible parts were observed to vary within crops and also across the cultivars. Wheat is an alternative choice of summer rice, due to low water requirement. With this background, the current experiment was conducted with four popular wheat cultivars to study the arsenic accumulation and varietal tolerance under different soils and groundwater. The arsenic content was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Result revealed that, wheat cultivars differed in their grain arsenic concentration (0.23–1.22 mg kg−1), which differed across the sites and year of experiment. The arsenic translocation in wheat grains usually least, and accumulation by different tissues followed the order root > stem > leaf > grain across the cultivars. The cultivar UP-262 was found to accumulate least arsenic in grains and cultivar Kalyansona the highest under same growing condition, due to phyto-extraction or phyto-morphological potential of the varieties.

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Abstract  

Liquid-liquid extractions of zirconium(IV) from aqueous HCl solutions by mixtures of Aliquat 336 or Alamine 336 and diocytl sulfoxide (DOSO) in the diluent benzene has been found to be always higher than that by any single extractant. While the cationic extractants extract Zr(IV) above 6M HCl, DOSO extracts from 4M onwards. Synergism has been observed in all cases. With any of these extractants extraction becomes almost quantitative at and above 10M HCl, but with mixtures of the cationic and neutral extractants, extraction is quantitative in the range 8–9M HCl. Although the extracted species with DOSO alone seems to be ZrCl4·DOSO, with the mixture of extractants, however, the extracted species appear to be Q2ZrCl6·DOSO where Q is R3 +NH (for Alamine 336) and R3 +N(CH3) (for Aliquat 336). Studies on separation of95Zr–95Nb pair from aqueous HCl media by Alamine 336 or DOSO and their mixtures in benzene exhibit preferential extraction of95Nb leaving behind95Zr in the aqueous phase, and extractions have been found to depend both upon the extractant and HCl concentrations.

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Abstract  

Synergism has been observed in the extraction of zirconium(IV) by mixtures of Aliquat 336 or Alamine 336 with a neutral donor TBP from aq. HCl solutions. Although the extractant dependency for Zr(IV) is found to be nearly second power with respect to TBP alone, monosolvate is found to be formed for extraction by its mixture with Aliquat 336 or Almine 336. Quantitative extraction is observed with mixtures at a lower acidity than that with individual extractants. The species formed is tentatively assigned to be Q2ZrCl6. TBP, where

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$Q{\mathbf{ }} = {\mathbf{ }}R_3 {\mathbf{ }}\mathop N\limits^ + (CH_3 )$$ \end{document}
for Aliquat 336 and
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$R_3 {\mathbf{ }}\mathop N\limits^ + H$$ \end{document}
for Alamine 336.

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Summary  

Sorption behavior of Th and U on cation-exchange resins was investigated from nitric acid medium by both batch and column methods. The cation-exchange studies involved the sorption of UO2 2+ and Th4+ and their cationic complexes onto Dowex 50Wx8 and Dowex 50Wx4 resins (50-100 mesh). The batch data yielded a separation factor (K d ,Th/K d, U) value of >100 for the cation-exchanger, Dowex 50Wx4 at 1-2M HNO3. Separation of uranium from thorium was also carried out by column method in nitric acid medium using cation-exchangers, Dowex 50Wx4 as well as Dowex 50Wx8. While uranium elution was possible at 1M HNO3, Th could be eluted only at higher concentration of nitric acid (>6M). The stripped solution emanating from a mixer settler employing di-2-ethyl hexyl isobutyramide as extractant and feed solution similar to THOREX process comprising 350 mg/l U and 380 mg/l Th in 0.75M HNO3 was loaded on the column and the decontamination factor value for U in the product was >1000.

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Abstract  

Presence of thiocyanate ions results in appreciable extraction of Zr(IV) by Aliquat 336 from low aqueous HCl acidities, i.e., 0.1 to 4.5M. The variation of concentrations of HCl, thiocyanate and Aliquat 336 greatly influences the extent of extraction. Mixtures of Aliquat 336 and TOPO result in synergistic extraction of Zr and Hf from acidic thiocyanate media, the extracted species being the disolvate with TOPO. By controlled adjustment of HCl, SCN and Aliquat 336 concentrations, separation of Zr, Nb and Hf is possible. A maximum separation factor (DNb/DZr) of 3675 has been achieved under certain conditions.

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