To identify malnutrition, nutritional risk screening and
assessment should be performed. A number of nutritional screening and assessment
tools have been developed.
Materials and methods
Authors monitored the nutritional
state of 1266 patients using the MUST (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool)
method. Measurements and questioning were done at admission. The study was cross
-sectional, presenting a snapshot about nutritional risk of patients.
In this study 21% of the patients had a BMI
smaller than 20. 29% patients admitted to hospital lost at least 5% of their
body weight in the 3 to 6 months before the admission. Altogether in this survey
41% of the patients are considered to be endangered concerning malnutrition!
There is a statistically visible difference at BMI values between the disease
If only body weight of patients is measured,
the rate of malnutrition is about 20%. Using MUST the number of endangered
patients is doubled. In these patients it is more likely that any complication
would develop. Since there is no significant relation between the age and the
risk group, MUST screening can be carried out on all patients. We intended to
emphasize the necessity of nutritional risk assessment and nutritional therapy
at all levels of health care.
Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.