research investigated the influence of binary solutions of benzene and methanol
for their vapor flammability characteristics. The different mixing ratios
(100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 vol%) samples were injected into a 20-liter
spherical explosion vessel under various initial temperatures (100, 150 and
200C) to study their flammability behaviors. According to the experimental
results, the flammability diagram of mixtures can be completely illustrated
and combined with specific safety-related properties such as lower explosion
limit (LEL), upper explosion limit (UEL), minimum oxygen concentration (MOC),
maximum explosion overpressure (Pmax),
and gas or vapor deflagration index (Kg).
The experimental results showed that the UEL, Pmax
and Kg all increased
with the temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration, whereas there was
no significant variation on the part of LEL. The results can provide specific
information on fire and explosion hazards for related industries.
The effects of bentonite density and fulvic acid on the sorption and diffusion of 90Sr2+in compacted bentonite were investigated by using a capillary method. The experiments were carried out at pH 7.0±0.1 in the
presence of 0.01M NaClO4. The results suggest that the sorption and diffusion of 90Sr2+in compacted bentonite decreases with increasing the density of compacted bentonite. The presence of FA enhances the sorption
of Sr2+, but reduces the diffusion of Sr2+in compacted bentonite. The porosity of the compacted bentonite plays an important role in the sorption and diffusion behavior
of 90Sr2+. Using the calculated effective diffusion coefficients the long-term relative concentration distribution of strontium was
evaluated in compacted bentonite.
This work discusses thermal behavior of Ni/MH battery with experimental methods. The present work not only provides a new
way to get more exactly parameters and thermal model, but also concentrates on thermal behavior in discharging period. With
heat generation rate gained by experiments with microcalorimeter, heat transport equations are set up and solved. The solutions
are compared with experiment results and used to understand the reactions inside the battery. Experiments with microcalorimeter
provide more reliable data to create precise thermal model.
Authors:H. Machulla, K. Dutschka, D. Van Beuningen, and T. Chen
Radioiodinated ω-phenylfatty acids were recently proposed as radiopharmaceuticals for determining myocardial metabolic alterations.
Therefore uptake and elimination of different radiohalogenated phenylfatty acids were determined in blood and heart muscle
of mice. The structure activity dependence i.e. the effect of length of the carbon chain, position of the substituent at the
benzene ring and type of radiohalogen was studied. Highest myocardial accumulation was found in case of a phenylfatty acid
with 15 carbon atoms in the alkylgroup and the radiohalogen attached to the benzene ring in the para position. No difference
was observed between the radiobrominated and radioiodinated substrates. In contrast to aliphatic radioiodinated fatty acids,
the radioactivity in the stomach remained almost constant (i.e. below 1% dose/organ). Thus 15-(123I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) could be brought into clinical application with success. Blood clearance and urine excretion
of the radioactivity were determined and the results found to agree with the expectations based on the principal metabolic
path of phenylfatty acids.
Information about the kinetics and thermal
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
has been required for safety reasons, due to its broad applications in many
chemical industries. To determine the inherent hazards during H2O2
manufacturing, transportation, disposal, usage, and so on, this study deliberately
selected various H2O2 concentrations
and analyzed them by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition,
thermokinetic parameters were not only established for each of these reactions,
but also aimed at comprehensive, kinetic models with various tests conducted
at different heating rates.
To build up a comprehensive kinetic
model, various tests were conducted by heating rates of 1, 2, 4, 10C
min–1, respectively. According to dynamic
DSC tests, the experimental curves show that H2O2
decomposition has one exothermic peak and may start to decompose under 47–81C.
The total heat of decomposition is about 192–1079 J g–1.
Not only can these results prevent accidents caused by H2O2
during storage and transportation, but also assess its inherent hazards and
thereby design procedures for emergency response while runaway reactions occurring.
Authors:L. Wu, K. Chen, S. Cheng, B. Lee, and C. Shu
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is popularly employed as a reaction reagent in cleaning processes for the chemical industry and semiconductor plants. By
using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), this study focused on the thermal decomposition
reaction of H2O2 mixed with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with low (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 N), and high concentrations of 96 mass%, respectively. Thermokinetic data, such as exothermic
onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), pressure rise rate (dP/dt), and self-heating rate (dT/dt), were obtained and assessed by the DSC and VSP2 experiments. From the thermal decomposition reaction on various concentrations
of H2SO4, the experimental data of T0, ΔH, dP/dt, and dT/dt were obtained. Comparisons of the reactivity for H2O2 and H2O2 mixed with H2SO4 (lower and higher concentrations) were evaluated to corroborate the decomposition reaction in these systems.
Chlorophyll content is positively correlated with photosynthetic rate. However, little is known about the genetic correlation between grain yield and chlorophyll content in the same wheat mapping population. The primary goal of the study was to detect the genetic basis of grain yield and chlorophyll content and their possible roles in the genetic improvement of grain yield in wheat. Here, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and chlorophyll content were studied using a set of 168 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between two elite Chinese wheat cultivars, Huapei 3×Yumai 57. The DH population and parents were evaluated for grain yield and chlorophyll content in three environments. A total of 11 additive QTLs and 6 pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for grain yield and chlorophyll content. Loci, such as
on chromosomes (e.g. 2D, 4A, and 5D) simultaneously controling grain yield and chlorophyll content, showed tight linkages or pleiotropisms. Three novel major QTLs,
, closely linked with the PCR marker
on chromosome 5D, accounted for 10.32%, 12.95%, and 23.29% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The favorable alleles came from Yumai 57.