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Abstract  

The characteristic properties of the chelating resin-3926(II) and the advantage of using it in the preconcentration procedure was described. The chemical recoveries determined by the trace technique were presented. The preconcentration procedure put forward in this paper may be used satisfactorily in neutron activation analysis.

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Selective ion-exchangers containing phosphorus in their functional groups

I. Sorption and separation of some bivalent and trivalent ions

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Marhol, H. Beranová, and K. Cheng

Abstract  

A series of selective ion-exchangers was synthetized, containing phosphinic or phosphonic acid functional groups. The selective sorption of Sc3+, Fe3+, Ga3+, In3+, Al3+, La3+, Pb2+, Co2+ and Ca2+ ions in 0.1–4.0M HNO3 medium was investigated using a batch experiment technique. The selectivity of these exchangers generally decreased in the order: Sc>Fe>In>Ga>Al>La>Pb>Cu>Co>Ca. The observed large differences in selectivity resulted in effective separation procedures of scandium from lanthanides, and gallium (or indium) from bivalent elements. The selective separation of these ions from their different mixtures is also possible.

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Abstract  

The effect of itaconic acid (IA) content and heating rate on the stabilization reactions in poly(acrylonitrile-co-itaconic acid) (P(AN-co-IA)) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with peak-resolving method. Increasing IA content was effective in decreasing the initial temperature and the heat evolved, and found to enhance oxidative reactions to some extent. While, promoting heating rate resulted in a shift of the exotherm to a higher temperature and a more rapid liberation of heat. The percentage of area of the first exothermic peak increased with increasing heating rate, which would be attributed to the enhancement of the free radical cyclization reactions.

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Abstract  

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is popularly employed as a reaction reagent in cleaning processes for the chemical industry and semiconductor plants. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), this study focused on the thermal decomposition reaction of H2O2 mixed with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with low (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 N), and high concentrations of 96 mass%, respectively. Thermokinetic data, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), pressure rise rate (dP/dt), and self-heating rate (dT/dt), were obtained and assessed by the DSC and VSP2 experiments. From the thermal decomposition reaction on various concentrations of H2SO4, the experimental data of T 0, ΔH, dP/dt, and dT/dt were obtained. Comparisons of the reactivity for H2O2 and H2O2 mixed with H2SO4 (lower and higher concentrations) were evaluated to corroborate the decomposition reaction in these systems.

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Abstract  

Two procedures are described for fast separations of berkelium from complex mixtures of reaction products arising from heavy ion reactions, such as18O+248Cm. The first procedure uses a combination of several extraction steps with a final separation on a cation exchanger, the second procedure starts with an anion exchange column which is followed by multiple extractions in different media. The elements separated in the different steps were analyzed and overall decontamination factors are given.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: K. Tung, J. Liu, F. Cheng, C. Yang, W. Tu, K. Wang, C. Shyu, C. Lai, C. Chou, and W. Lee

Isospora michaelbakeri is one of the Isospora species most commonly found in the wild field, which can cause severe infection and mortality in young sparrows. In this study, we selected I. michaelbakeri (Chung Hsing strain) as a pathogen to orally inoculate russet sparrows ( Passer rutilans ), spotted munia ( Lonchura punctulata ), canary ( Serinus canaria ), Java sparrows ( Padda oryzivora ), chicken ( Gallus domesticus ), ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) and BALB/c mice. The results indicated that I. michaelbakeri infected only russet sparrows. Infected sparrows displayed lethargy, muscular weakness and fluffy feathers, followed by rapid death. Liver and spleen enlargement was seen in the infected birds. Schizonts were identified in thin smears from the venous blood, enlarged livers and spleens. Histopathological examination revealed schizonts and merozoites from the liver and spleen of infected russet sparrows, but not from other species experimentally inoculated with I. michaelbakeri in the present study.

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Abstract  

Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) experiments are performed in polycarbonate (PC) exposed to CO2 and He gases as a function of time and pressure. In PC/CO2 systems, hole size and fraction reduced from PAL data increase as a function of CO2 pressure and exposure time. Significant hysteresis in positron lifetime data is observed during CO2 abasorption/desorption. In PC/He systems, no variation is observed. Hole size distribution in the CO2-exposed polymers is found to be significantly broader than in unexposed samples. The high sensitivity of PAL results to CO2 exposure of PC is thought to relate to the microstructural changes in the polymer matrix, such as penetrant plasticization, gas hydrostatic pressure effect, and molecular filling and creation of holes.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: C. Baskett, V. Spate, J. Morris, H. Anderson, M. Mason, C. Reams, T. Cheng, K. Zinn, G. Hill, and R. Dowdy

Abstract  

The principal objective of this study was to determine if the use of a stable enriched tracer of Se-76 could be used to determine the delay time between a dietary intake of selenium and its appearance in fingernails and toenails. Selenium is an essential trace element in human nutrition. It has been studied at the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) for the past 15 years using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. The principal route of human exposure to selenium is through the diet. Selenium concentrations of nails, blood, hair, and urine have been used as indicators of dietary selenium intake. In this study, a cohort consisting of seven men and five women ingested three selenium supplements of 150 g each over a three day period. The selenium was enriched in Se-76 (96.48%) and ingested as selenite in orange juice following an overnight fast. Fingernails and toenails were collected prior to the selenium supplementation and for several months afterward to be used as biochemical indicators. The peak76Se concentration in the fingernails and toenails occurred at 19–23 and 16–32 weeks after supplementation, respectively.

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Abstract  

The thermal mechanical properties and degradation behaviors were studied on fibers prepared from two high-performance, heterocyclic polymers, poly(p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole) (PBZT) and poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) (PBZO). Our research demonstrated that these two fibers exhibited excellent mechanical properties and outstanding thermal and thermo-oxidative stability. Their long-term mechanical tensile performance at high temperatures was found to be critically associated with the stability of the C—O or C—S linkage at the heterocyclic rings on these polymers' backbones. PBZO fibers with the C—O linkages displayed substantially higher thermal stability compared to PBZT containing C—S linkages. High resolution pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry provided the information of the pyrolyzates' compositions and distributions as well as their relationships with the structures of PBZT and PBZO. Based on the analysis of the compositions and distributions of all pyrolyzates at different temperatures, it was found that the thermal degradation mechanisms for both of these heterocyclic polymers were identical. Kevlar®-49 fibers were also studied under the same experimental conditions in order to make a comparison of thermo-oxidative stability and long-term mechanical performance at high temperatures with PBZO and PBZT fibers. The data of two high-performance aromatic polyimide fibers were also included as references.

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