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Abstract  

Studies on solvent extraction of uranium(VI) by a commercially available chelating extractant LIX-54 (a -diketone derivative) (HA) and its mixtures with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in benzene diluent show quantitative extraction by a mixture of 5% LIX-54 and 5% TBP at pH 4.3. Influence of different proportions of LIX-54 or TBP in the mixtures on the extraction of the same metal ion has been studied. Pronounced synergism has been observed. The composition of the extracted species seems to be [UO2(OH)(A)(HA)(TBP)] as determined from slope analysis. Slopes of the linear plots were computed employing regression analysis and variance in results has been shown.

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Abstract  

Liquid-liquid extractions of zirconium/IV/, thorium/IV/ and uranium/VI/ with a tetradentate Schiff base, bis/salicylidene/ ethylenediamine /H2Salen/ in benzene as the diluent have been studied. Comparison of such results with those in case of a bidentate Schiff base, N-salicylidene-p-toluidine /HSalTol/ shows that the extraction of UO 2 2+ is significantly improved if H2Salen is used instead of HSalTol2. A single extraction at pH 6.5 with H2Salen removes uranium/VI/. Extraction of all the three metals becomes quantitative at pH 6.5. The extracted species, which have been derived from slope-analyses of extraction results, seem to be of the type [Zr4/OH/12 /HSalen/2]Cl2, [UO2/OH/ /HSalen/] and [Th/OH/3 /HSalen/].

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Abstract  

Solvent extraction of thorium/IV/ by a commercially available chelating extractant LIX-54 /a -diketone derivative/ /HA/ and its mixtures with tri-n-butyl phosphate /TBP/, thenoyltrifluoroacetone /HTTA/ and tri-n-octyl phosphineoxide /TOPO/ in benzene as the diluent have been studied. Quantitative extraction of thorium/IV/ by the mixture of 10% LIX-54 and 0.1M TOPO was noticed at pH 2.8. Influence of various concentrations of HTTA and TOPO in their mixtures with LIX-54 on the extraction of the same metal ion has been investigated and pronounced synergism was observed. Slope analyses determination shows the extracted species to be possibly of the type [Th/TTA/2/A/2] in case of extraction by mixtures of HTTA and LIX-54. Slopes of the linear plots were computed employing regression analysis, and variance in results has been shown.

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Single screw extrusion of cassava starch was evaluated as a pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the extrudate and fermentation to yield alcohol. The acid concentration, barrel temperature and moisture content showed that all the variables were significant. Increasing acid concentration or barrel temperature induced starch depolymerisation with a higher water solubility index and lower water absorption index. At 20 and 24% moisture contents the cold paste viscosity decreased. As a result of the addition of acid during extrusion cooking the degree of starch hydrolysis resulted in low hot paste viscosity. Acid concentration was significant in the production of reducing sugars. At concentrations above 0.024 N, as the temperature increased, the reducing sugar content also increased. Nevertheless, at concentrations below 0.024 N, the reducing sugar content showed the opposite result. The best yield of alcohol obtained from the extruded starch was 98.7% (0.56 g of ethanol/g starch), which, on average, was 5.7% and 6.8% higher than that obtained from starch extruded without acid and from starch gelatinized by the conventional method, respectively.

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Abstract  

Quantitative extraction of uranium(VI) is observed from 0.2M HCl by 5% (v/v) Cyanex 301. The extraction decreases with increasing acid concentration. Mixtures of Cyanex 301 with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), didecyl sulfoxide (DDSO) and Alamine 308 result in significant synergism in the extraction process, where a species of the type UO2R2. L is proposed to be extracted [RH=Cyanex 301 and L=TBP, DDSO or Alamine 308]. Significant extraction of uranium(VI) by 5% (v/v) Alamine 308 is observed at and above 2M HCl, which increases with further increase in acidity attaining a maximum at 6M, after which a slight decrease in extration is observed. Mixtures of Alamine 308 with TBP or DDSO result in a synergism, where a species of the type (R 3 NH)2 UO2Cl4. Lis extracted. [R 3 N=Alamine 308, L=TBP or DDSO]. Mixtures of Alamine 308 and Cyanex 301 at 2M HCl result in a profound antagonism in the extraction of uranium(VI).

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Abstract  

Solvent extractions of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by a commercially available chelating extractant LIX-26 (an alkylated 8-hydroxyquinoline) or 8-hydroxyquinoline, benzoic or salicylic acid, dipentyl sulphoxide (DPSO) and their mixtures with butanol as modifier in benzene/methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK) as the diluent have been studied. Extraction of uranium(VI) by 10% LIX-26 and 10% butanol in benzene becomes quantitative at pH 5.0. The pH 0.5 values for the extraction of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) are 4.95 and 3.35, respectively. Quantitative extraction of thorium(IV) by the mixture of 0.1 M oxine and 0.1 M salicylic acid in methylisobutyl ketone was observed at pH 5.0. The influence of concentration of various anions on the extraction of Th4+ by mixtures of LIX-26 and benzoic acid has been studied. Studies on extraction of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by mixtures of LIX-26 (HQ) and DPSO show that the extracted species are possibly of the type [ThQ2/DPSO/2/SCN/2] and [UO2Q2/DPSO/], respectively.

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Abstract  

The order of extraction of Mo(VI) from 1M acid solutions by 5% (v/v) LIX 622 (HL) in benzene is HCl>HNO3>HClO4>H2SO4, and extraction decreases with increasing concentration of HCl and H2SO4, and increases slightly with increasing concentration of HNO3 and HClO4. The extracted species is shown to be MoO2L2 as established by IR data of organic extracts and the extracted species in the solid form. Extraction is almost quantitative at and above 10% LIX 622, and is found to be independent of [Mo(VI)] in the range of 10–4 to 10–3 M. The diluents CCl4, CHCl3 and C6H6 are found to be superior to solvents of high dielectric constant for extraction of Mo(VI). Extraction of uranium(VI) by 10% (v/v) LIX 622 in benzene was found to increase with increasing equilibrium pH (3.0 to 6.0), and becomes quantitative at pH 5.9. Tributyl phosphate acts as a modifier up to 2% (v/v). Thorium(IV) is almost not extracted by LIX 622 or its mixture. Separation of Mo(VI) and U(VI) is feasible.

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Abstract  

Liquid-liquid extractions of zirconium(IV) from aqueous HCl solutions by mixtures of Aliquat 336 or Alamine 336 and diocytl sulfoxide (DOSO) in the diluent benzene has been found to be always higher than that by any single extractant. While the cationic extractants extract Zr(IV) above 6M HCl, DOSO extracts from 4M onwards. Synergism has been observed in all cases. With any of these extractants extraction becomes almost quantitative at and above 10M HCl, but with mixtures of the cationic and neutral extractants, extraction is quantitative in the range 8–9M HCl. Although the extracted species with DOSO alone seems to be ZrCl4·DOSO, with the mixture of extractants, however, the extracted species appear to be Q2ZrCl6·DOSO where Q is R3 +NH (for Alamine 336) and R3 +N(CH3) (for Aliquat 336). Studies on separation of95Zr–95Nb pair from aqueous HCl media by Alamine 336 or DOSO and their mixtures in benzene exhibit preferential extraction of95Nb leaving behind95Zr in the aqueous phase, and extractions have been found to depend both upon the extractant and HCl concentrations.

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Abstract  

The extraction order of Th(IV), U(VI) and Mo(VI) based on pH0.5 values is Mo(VI)>U(VI)>Th(IV). Quantitative extraction has been observed for U(VI) by mixture of 10% (v/v) LIX 84 and 0.1M dibenzoylmethane at pH 4.2 and by mixture of 10% LIX 84 and 0.05M HTTA in the pH range 5.5–7.3 and for Mo(VI) by 10% LIX 84 from chloride media at pH 1.5. The order of extraction of Mo(VI) from 1N acid solutions is HCl>H2SO4>HNO3>HClO4 and extraction decreases very rapidly with increase in the concentration of HCl as compared to that from H2SO4, HNO3 and HClO4 acid solutions. The diluents C6H6, CCl4 and CHCl2 are found to be superior ton-butyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol for extraction of Mo(VI). Influence of concentration of different anions on the extraction of U(VI) and Mo(VI) has been studied. Very little extraction has been observed in case of Th(IV) by LIX 84 or its mixtures with other chelating extractants or neutral donors.

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Abstract  

Synergism has been observed in the extraction of zirconium(IV) by mixtures of Aliquat 336 or Alamine 336 with a neutral donor TBP from aq. HCl solutions. Although the extractant dependency for Zr(IV) is found to be nearly second power with respect to TBP alone, monosolvate is found to be formed for extraction by its mixture with Aliquat 336 or Almine 336. Quantitative extraction is observed with mixtures at a lower acidity than that with individual extractants. The species formed is tentatively assigned to be Q2ZrCl6. TBP, where

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$Q{\mathbf{ }} = {\mathbf{ }}R_3 {\mathbf{ }}\mathop N\limits^ + (CH_3 )$$ \end{document}
for Aliquat 336 and
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$R_3 {\mathbf{ }}\mathop N\limits^ + H$$ \end{document}
for Alamine 336.

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