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Abstract  

Bombesin (BNN)-like peptides have very high binding affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor. The goal of the current study was to optimize the labeling conditions of a new 99mTc-radiolabeled BNN-like peptide based on the bifunctional chelating ligand HYNIC using different co-ligands (EDDA and tricine). The radiolabeling conditions (pH, amount of co-ligand, amount of stannous chloride, temperature and reaction time) for newly-formed 99mTc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were optimized and evaluated by RHPLC and RTLC. Radiochemical yields for 99mTc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were 98.0 ± 1.7 and 97.5 ± 2.5%, respectively. When EDDA was used as co-ligand, the labeling of 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin was optimal in the following reaction mixture: HYNIC-peptide: EDDA: 10 μg/5 mg, pH 3, SnCl2 concentration: 12 μg/0.1 mL, reaction temperature: 100 °C, reaction time: 15 min. Besides, the optimum conditions were HYNIC-peptide:tricine: 10 μg/50 mg, pH 5, SnCl2 concentration: 12 μg/0.1 mL, reaction temperature: 100 °C, reaction time: 15 min for preparing 99mTc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin. The manufactured 99mTc-HYNIC-Q-Litorin conjugates may offer new possibilities for imaging cancer cells expressing bombesin receptors.

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Abstract  

Cefuroxime axetil, a cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections, was investigated to label with 99mTc. Radiolabeling of cefuroxime axetil was carried out by using stannous chloride method. Effects of pH and stannous chloride amount on the radiolabeling yield were investigated. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-cefuroxime axetil was determined by thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC), electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum radiolabeling yield was 98±1%.

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Abstract  

Apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), one of the most common flavonoids, has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including tumor growth inhibition and chemopreventation. In the present study, apigenin was labeled with 131I using iodogen method and investigated of its bioactivity. Radiolabeling yield is 98±0.2%, as determined by radio thin layer chromatography (RTLC), electrophoresis and radio high performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC). Besides, structure analysis of synthesized cold iodoapigenin complex were assessed with LCMS/MS and 1H-NMR. Results of in vitro study indicated a high stability (3 hours) in human serum. Biodistrubition studies are performed in male and female albino Wistar rats. Biodistribution data related to the male rats showed significant uptake in the small intestine. The female rats biodistribution results indicated that the uptake of 131I-apigenin was high in the intestine and uterus.

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Abstract  

The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the possible transplacental transmission of 131I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin (131I-rh-EPO) in pregnant rats and its distribution through maternal and fetal organs. Six Wistar Albino Rats in their pregnancy of 18 days were used 131I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin (specific activity = 2.4 μCi/IU) was injected into the tail vein of rats. After 30 minutes labeled erythropoietin infusion maternal stomach, kidney, lung, liver, brain and heart as well as fetus were removed. Then, the same organs were removed from each fetus. Measuring weight of maternal and fetal organs as well as placenta were followed by radioactivity count via Cd(Te) detector. 131I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin was found to be able to pass rat placenta and its distribution order in fetal organs was similar to those of maternal organs. Besides, as measurements were performed closer to cornu uteri, uptakes were decreasing in every fetus and its corresponding placenta.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study was to determine whether [131I]apigenin is a powerful and discrimination infection from inflammation for scintigraphic imaging. The study was carried out in inflamed rats with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and sterile inflamed rats with turpentine oil. Biodistribution study of [131I]apigenin was performed in the rats. Apigenin was labeled with 131I by iodogen method. Obtained [131I]apigenin with high yield (98%) was injected i.v. to both group rats. The results were expressed as the percent uptake of injected dose per gram of organ (%ID/g), the bacterial infected and sterile inflamed muscles. Binding of [131I]apigenin to the infected thigh muscle (target muscle = T) and normal thigh muscle (non-target muscle = NT) ratio (T/NT = 4.51 at 15 min) was higher than binding to bacterial inflamed muscle (T/NT = 2.25 at 15 min) of rats. [131I]apigenin showed good localization in both inflamed tissues. This uptake in the sterile inflamed tissue is higher than bacterial infected tissue. [131I]apigenin might be useful for imaging of inflamed tissues. However, it is not discriminate sterile inflamed tissue from bacterial infected tissue.

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Abstract  

Linezolid is the first of new class of antibiotics, the oxazolidinones, and exhibits activity against many gram-positive organisms, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Aim of the study: Linezolid was to label with I-131 and potential of the radiolabeled antibiotic was to investigate in inflamed rats with Saureus (S. aureus) and sterile inflamed rats with turpentine oil. Linezolid was labeled with I-131 by iodogen method. Biodistribution of [131I]linezolid was carried out in bacterial inflamed and sterile inflamed rats. Radiolabeling yield of [131I]linezolid was determined as 85 ± 1% at pH 2. After injecting of [131I]linezolid into bacterial inflamed and sterile inflamed rats, radiolabeled linezolid was rapidly removed from the circulation via the kidneys. Binding of [131I]linezolid to bacterial inflamed muscle (T/NT = 77.48 at 30 min) was five times higher than binding to sterile inflamed muscle (T/NT = 14.87 at 30 min) of rats. [131I]linezolid showed good localization in bacterial inflamed tissue. It was demonstrated that [131I]linezolid can be used to detect S. aureus inflammation in rats.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
F. Yurt Lambrecht
,
O. Yilmaz
,
P. Unak
,
B. Seyitoglu
,
K. Durkan
, and
H. Baskan

Abstract  

Localizing and distinguishing the “infection” in body sites are very important and life saving processes. Scintigraphic detections may help to determine the sites of inflammation and infection. At this point, nuclear medical imaging may proceed one step further and be helpful to localize and distinguish the inflammation. The radiolabeled antibiotic 99mTc-Cefuroxime axetil was assessed as an infection imaging agent in a rat model. In this study, 99mTc-Cefuroxime axetil was examined in localizing the normal, sterile inflamed, and septic inflamed rat muscle tissues, and also in distinguishing each of them. The biodistribution data show that 99mTc labeled Cefuroxime axetil was retained in infectious areas. The retention was better in septic inflamed (S. aureus) area than sterile inflamed area. The clearance of the labeled antibiotic from other tissues is rapid on the contrary to its clearance from the septic area. Target/non-target ratio shows a good value of 2.5 at 4-hour post injection when the activity of the other organs is cleared by urinary excretion.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
F. Yurt Lambrecht
,
O. Yilmaz
,
P. Unak
,
B. Seyitoglu
,
K. Durkan
,
S. Yolcular
, and
H. Baskin

Abstract  

The aim of this study was to evaluate 99mTc labeled human β-defensin-1 (HBD-1) for discrimination between bacterial infection and sterile inflammation. For this purpose, HBD-1 was radiolabeled with 99mTc and its in vivo distribution was evaluated in inflamed rats with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and sterile inflamed rats with turpentine oil. After injection into inflamed and sterile inflamed rats, 99mTc-HBD-1 was rapidly removed from the circulation via the kidneys. Binding of 99mTc-HBD-1 to inflamed muscle (T/NT = 20 at 120 min) was two times higher than binding to sterile inflamed muscle (T/NT = 10 at 120 min) of rats. It was demonstrated that 99mTc-HBD-1 can be used to detect S. aureus inflammation in rats. However, the radiolabeled antimicrobial peptide showed only poor uptake in sterile inflammation with turpentine oil in rats. As a result, 99mTc-HBD-1 can be useful for detection of bacterial inflammation.

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