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  • Author or Editor: K. Fischl x
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In this paper we want to present some results of an intensive survey programme on the Bronze Age settlements of Emőd-Nagyhalom and Tard-Tatárdomb in Northern Hungary. The inner cores of these multi-layer sites are just one part of a more complex whole. They are surrounded by an outer settlement that is separated by a deep and wide ditch from the inner tell part. The outer settlement itself can be divided in two parts: There is an intensively used inner part probably with houses and an outer part featuring pits that could be indicative of an everyday activity zone of some kind such as storage or production. The precise chronological and functional relation of these settlement parts will be the subject of future work. Our current research is based mainly on intensive archaeological survey, aerial photography, topographical measurements and magnetometer survey that provide important data both on the intra and off-site level. This paper focuses on the results of the geophysical survey methods.

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large-pot model experiments were conducted with maize under greenhouse conditions with the aim of studying the effect of different N fertiliser forms, water supplies and crop residues on the nitrogenous gas production in the rooting zone. Nitrogen fertiliser was applied in the form of KNO3 or NH4Cl. The experiment was done at two soil moisture levels, with or without the incorporation of maize crop residues into the soil, and with or without test plants. Gas traps were placed in the pots at a soil depth of 20 cm. During the growing season, the trapped soil air was analysed for NOx, N2O and N2. Practically the same N amounts evolved in the soil air with both chemical forms of N fertiliser at both soil moisture levels. expressed as a percentage of fertiliser N, the total amount of gaseous N evolved averaged 12.8% and 12.9% in the planted, and 23.8% and 24.3% in the unplanted pots with KNO3 and NH4Cl fertiliser, respectively. Higher soil moisture and the incorporation of crop residues resulted in higher NOx-N and N2O-N ratios within the total gaseous N evolved in the rooting zone.

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The primary (1 st year) and the after-effects (2 nd , 3 rd year) of N fertilizers (KNO 3 , NH 4 Cl) on the soil-plant-atmosphere system were studied in a three-year greenhouse pot experiment with and without maize plants. The two- and three-year balances of the fertilizer N uptake and gaseous N losses were also analyzed. The cumulative values of the gaseous losses showed a similar trend in all years, significant differences were not obtained. On the basis of the three-year balance, the gaseous loss in the planted and unplanted pots was 18-22% and about 37-39%, respectively. Consequently, there was a 50% decrease in denitrificated gaseous losses of fertilizer N due to plant N uptake. The cumulative gaseous loss, calculated by the difference method, was significantly higher in cases of KNO 3 applications than in NH 4 Cl treatments, as an assumed  consequence of the intensive denitrification. It was found that the gaseous loss was not influenced by soil moisture.  In contrast to the gaseous losses, the values of plant N uptake and soil mineral N content showed significant differences in the years studied, as a result of the quick transformation of mineral N to organic N, the non-complete homogenization of the total soil amount, the seasonal climatic differences in the greenhouse during the years studied, and consequently the different microbiological activity. The plant N uptake was found to depend significantly on the fertilizer N form. Results obtained by the difference method and the 15 N-tracer technique were very similar. In the case of KNO 3 treatment and higher soil moisture (WHC = 80%) plant N uptake was more intensive, ranging between 48-57% (calculated by the difference method), and 35-51% (calculated by the 15 N- tracer method) in the first year (1993). It can be concluded that 60-100% of the fertilizer N was used from the soil by plant uptake and gaseous losses, which depends mainly on the treatments and the soil moisture during the first year. These values changed between 7-17% in the 1 st year after-effect and between 1-5% in the 2 nd year after-effect.

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