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  • Author or Editor: K. Gadó x
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Abstract

Number of people over 65 years is continuously increasing and represents an ever growing proportion of population even in Hungary. Medical treatment of the elderly implies a massive burden for the healthcare system. Special knowledge is required to provide an appropriate medical care for the elderly. During the ageing process, several changes accumulate in the body and several chronic diseases develop. Function of parenchymal organs is impaired, healing process is slower, clinical manifestations of diseases are not so prominent, the diagnosis is often difficult to establish. Moreover, treatment possibilities also differ, because pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs are different from that of young patients. Communication with older patients is also cumbersome, participation of a relative or caregiver at consultation can be useful. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death of adults over the age of 65. Among these diseases congestive heart failure, coronary artery diseases, hypertension, atrial fibrillation have the greatest significance.

Open access

Abstract

The ageing processes, primarily after the age of 60, bring about a number of important changes that affect the skin’s protective function. These changes directly and indirectly increase its vulnerability and impair its ability to heal. Hence, the incidence of chronic wounds increases in the elderly population. Dry skin, often accompanied by itching and consequent scratching, can lead to the development of wounds. The skin’s ability to regenerate itself is also impaired by the atrophy that affects all the three layers of the skin, the epidermis, dermis, and subcutis. The deterioration of vascularisation and innervation increases the chance of ulcer formation and impaired healing of existing wounds. Together these lead to the development of chronic lower limb ulcers in elderly patients or decubitus in older bedridden patients. Bedsores are more likely to develop in older patients with reduced body weight due to their decreased amount of adipose tissue capable of pressure-relieving. This latter negative tendency may be exacerbated by the presence of reduced mobility, impaired muscle strength, and frequent incontinence. In all respects, the propensity to heal is worse than in younger age, thus in many cases a chronic process is expected, and in some cases halting the progression may be a significant outcome. Ulcers of rare aetiology can occur at any age, so pyoderma gangrenosum, vasculitis, and other ulcers with rare aetiology in the elderly population should also be considered.

Open access

Abstract

The incidence of all types of malignant skin tumours, including both melanoma and non-melanoma types, has increased in recent decades, while basal cell carcinoma is the most common human malignancy in the Caucasian race. The aging of the skin is associated with an increase in both benign and malignant tumours. As the population ages and life expectancy extends, mostly in developed countries, dermatologists are likely to face growing numbers of patients seeking therapy for such abnormalities. It is primarily UV irradiation that is responsible for the development of skin cancers, although there are other risk factors, including air pollution and X-ray irradiation. Seborrhoeic keratosis, solar lentigo and other benign lesions, despite their harmless nature, may cause distress to patients, such as itching or aesthetic issues. This review article summarises the features of the most common benign and malignant lesions of aging skin.

Open access

Abstract

Epidemics and pandemics have happened throughout the history of mankind. Before the end of the 20th century, scientific progress successfully eradicated several of the pathogens. While no one has to be afraid of smallpox anymore, there are some new pathogens that have never caused human disease before. Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses. In the 21st century, three of them have caused serious pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 2012. In 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has destroyed hundreds of thousands of lives and continues to rage.

Open access