A considerable number of patients arriving in dental offices are being treated with ongoing medication for a variety of chronic diseases. As a result, dentists must be familiar with the potential side effects these therapeutic agents may have on the tissues of the oral cavity, and in particular on the salivary gland. Salivary gland function may be altered by a wide range of medications, leading to effects such as xerostomia, hyposalivation, hypersalivation or even swelling of the glands. These disorders can cause a variety of other health complications. This review will focus on the most common groups of drugs responsible for salivary gland dysfunction, including psychoactive drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihypertensives, and antihistamines.