The paper examines the use of references by applicants and the examiners in US patent documents by R&D scientists from CSIR
in India. It observes that scientists in CSIR use higher inputs of scientific information than the technical information in
patenting. The examiners do make their own prior art search and add significantly to the patent and non-patent literature,
which is distinctly different from the references given by the R&D scientists from CSIR. It identifies (a) the major disciplines
and the sub-disciplines that contribute most of the scientific knowledge, and (b) the countries from where most references
to patent literature are made. The applicants cite relatively less recent patent literature and more medium-term patent literature
in comparison to citations by examiners. The paper observes that there is scope of improvement in making relevant prior art
search, particularly, for patent literature by R&D scientists and in planning and organizing the information support for conducting
patentable R&D in CSIR.
Authors:Sanjay D. Gupta, Sanjeev K. Gupta, and Prafulla K. Jha
We report ab initio calculations of the thermal properties for transition metal nitrides, hafnium and zirconium nitride at ambient and high pressures. The assessment of thermodynamical properties like lattice specific heat, vibrational energy, internal energy and entropy for two nitrides has been carried out. The basic calculations of ingredient phonon density of states for the determination of thermal properties have been done using density functional perturbation theory including external perturbations like strains and electric fields in periodic systems. The ground state properties such as equilibrium lattice constants and bulk modulus obtained for two nitrides are in good agreement with the available experimental value. The calculated pressure variation of the phonon density of states shows trend similar to the experimental pressure dependent Raman spectra. The lattice specific heat, internal energy, entropy and Helmholtz energy increases with pressure.
Authors:K. Shanker, M. Singh, V. Srivastava, R. K. Verma, A. K. Gupta, and M. M. Gupta
An online-hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six lignans of therapeutic importance in four Phyllanthus spp. (P. amarus, P. maderaspatensis, P. urinaria, and P. virgatus). HPLC with monolithic reverse phase silica column (4.6 × 100 mm) and simple isocratic elution of methanol-water mixed with dioxane facilitated the separation of lignans of diverse nature such as diarylbutyrolactone, tetrahydrofuran, isomeric aryltetralin, and diarylbutane type for quantitative analysis. Targeted lignans viz. heliobuphthalmin lactone (1), virgatusin (2), hypophyllanthin (3), phyllanthin (4), nirtetralin (5), and niranthin (6) were confirmed unambiguously in four Phyllanthus species by their abundant molecular adduct ions, retention time, UV, and mass spectra as compared with those of reference compounds. Advantages and limitations of both detection techniques for qualitative (fingerprinting) and quantitative analysis of the above mentioned lignans in four Phyllanthus spp. are discussed. The method was validated following international guidelines. The described method can be utilized for assays and stability tests of P. amarus extracts as well as traditional Indian medicine based on Phyllanthus herb.
The results of a field study revealed that the application of fertilizers to the companion crop in a millet/legume intercropping system is essential to optimize the yield of the legume component. Supplying nutrients to the main crop alone tended to decrease the productivity of the companion crop, probably because of shading as a result of overgrowth of the main crop. The highest contents of N and P in the grain and straw of the intercrop were recorded with 100% of the recommended dose to both the component crops (M100I100). However, the uptake of nutrients was highest from the plots receiving 50 and 100% of the recommended dose to the main and companion crop, respectively (M50I100). Higher uptake was due to the fact that the yields increased to a greater extent than the nutrient concentrations.
Authors:Long Han, Deepak Doraiswamy, and Rakesh K. Gupta
Light emitting devices containing conjugated polymers are conveniently fabricated using ink-jet printing. A common problem in the processing of these materials is that the Newtonian viscosity of the polymer solution is not sufficient to describe the jetting performance because the molecular weights and concentrations employed are such that the resulting solutions are elastic. These differences in fluid elasticity levels cannot be measured using traditional techniques like dynamic mechanical experiments or the first normal stress difference in shear, but strongly impact the jetting behavior of the liquid. In this study, a variety of polystyrene solutions in DECALIN having a shear viscosity of ~5 mPa s but different elasticity levels were examined for their jetting behavior. The jetting behavior of these solutions was studied visually using drop-on-demand jetting equipment and their rheology was characterized using a custom extensional rheometer designed for measuring the elasticity of such low viscosity liquids. If elasticity effects are absent as in Newtonian liquids (corresponding to a Trouton ratio of 3) satellite drops are formed resulting in loss of liquid and poor positioning. On the other hand, if elasticity effects are very large (Trouton ratios ≫4) separation problems occur at the nozzle with undesirable “tailing.” The optimum range for stable, efficient jetting occurs at Trouton ratios in a narrow band between 3 and ~5. A very slight degree of elasticity corresponding to a Trouton Ratio around four thus seems to be optimum for the jetting process. This appears to be the first time that such a design criterion has been outlined for this process. Such an approach complements thermal techniques for elucidating the role of molecular and flow properties on the processing behavior of polymeric systems.
Authors:Parthasarathi Banerjee, B. Gupta, and K. Garg
Numbers of patents cannot indicate the state of research or the contents of patent documentation cannot indicate the true technological features achieved. Patent statistics though so used, is not a good indicator of the economic returns to investments in research. Use of this statistics for understanding the degree of competition and the competition-driven research strategy is attractive. A patent document is part of the public knowledge in such a way as to restrict the growth of the future public knowledge. This portent on the future content of research and on the number and areas of research, by a current application is a competition-defining aspect. This effect on the lagged future applications and accepting patent disclosure as an intentional strategic data — are the most significant characteristics of patent statistics. The present paper applied this understanding, and generated a number of indices derived from data bases on patenting. These are indicators on Competition, Technology Pool, Language Technology Pool, Modified Competition, Market Attractiveness and on the Strength of Patent Market. Values of these indicators for biotechnological research and for several countries have been derived as example.
Authors:Himadri R. Soni, Venu Mankad, Sanjay D. Gupta, Sanjeev K. Gupta, and Prafulla K. Jha
In the present paper, we report an ab initio calculation of the ground state, electronic and thermodynamical properties like constant volume lattice specific heat, vibrational energy, internal energy, and entropy for GaP and Ga2P is presented. These properties are obtained after calculating the phonon spectrum over the entire Brillouin zone. The calculations were performed using the ABINIT program package, which is based on density functional theory (DFT) method and the use of pseudopotentials and plane wave expansion. Difference in the ground state properties such as electronic structure and thermodynamical properties are discussed. The thermodynamical properties follow the expected trend. There is a good agreement between present theoretical and limited available experimental data in the case of ground state such as lattice constant and bulk modulus and electronic properties. With the increase of Ga atoms in the unit cell the semiconducting nature of Ga2P turns to metallic. There is a noticeable difference in the thermodynamical properties in the case of both gallium compounds.
Authors:K. S. AHMED, B. S. PANWAR and, and S. P. GUPTA
Phytoremediation is a green technology for the sustainable remediation of surface soils contaminated with toxic heavy metals. When added to soils the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the solubility of heavy elements for plant uptake during phytoremediation. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with two Brassica species (Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata) grown on artificially contaminated soil (20 and 40 mg Cd kg-1) with EDTA added at a rate of 1 g kg-1 soil. With increasing Cd (0, 20 and 40 mg Cd kg-1 soil) contamination the biomass of both the Brassica species decreased. However, Brassica juncea was more tolerant of high levels of Cd in the soil in comparison to B. carinata. The results indicated that EDTA made the cadmium more available to the plants and lowered the Cd content of the soil. The magnitude of the increase in tissue (stem, leaf and root) Cd concentration was higher in B.juncea than in B. carinata and after the application of chelating agent (EDTA). The Brassica juncea species of Indian mustard has better potential for the phytoremediation of soil heavily contaminated with Cd (40 mg Cd kg-1 soil).