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Abstract  

Chemical separation methods in conjunction with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were developed for measuring iodine levels in commercially available bovine milk with varying milk fat (MF) content. Samples of homogenized (3.25 % MF), partly skimmed (2 % MF), partly skimmed (1 % MF), partly skimmed calcium enriched (1 % MF + Ca), and skim (<0.05 %) milk were purchased from local supermarkets. Ion exchange chromatography, solvent extraction, and ammonium sulfate precipitation methods were applied to the separation of the inorganic, lipidic and proteic fractions of iodine in milk. The levels of iodine were measured by INAA in total reactor and epi-cadmium (EINAA) neutron flux in conjunction with conventional gamma-ray and Compton suppression spectrometry (CSS). A pseudo-cyclic INAA method coupled with CSS (PC-INAA-CSS) was also explored as an instrumental option to further lower the detection limit of iodine. The detection limits of 0.06, 0.06 and 0.02 μg mL−1 for iodine were obtained using INAA-CSS, EINAA-CSS, and PC-INAA-CSS methods, respectively. Although the PC-INAA-CSS method provided the lowest detection limit, the INAA-CSS method was sufficient for the determination of total iodine in almost all samples analyzed in this work. The total iodine concentrations (μg mL−1) were: 0.40 ± 0.01 (in 3.25 % MF), 0.40 ± 0.01 (2 % MF), 0.42 ± 0.01 (1 % MF), 0.42 ± 0.01 (<0.05 %), and 0.96 ± 0.01 (1 % MF + Ca) milk samples. Iodine bound to various fractions of the milk samples analyzed, in percent of total iodine content, ranged: (0.05–1.8), (1.9–4.8), (90–95) for the lipidic, proteic and anionic inorganic fractions respectively. Iodine recovery in all cases was higher than 96 %.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
J. Santana Romero
,
F. Martínez Luzardo
,
E. Codorniú Hernández
,
L. Vargas Guerra
,
P. Melo Cala
,
M. García Guillén
,
K. Isaac Olivé
,
P. Estevez
,
A. Roque Córdoba
, and
M. Benítez

Abstract  

Vegetable tannins are polyphenolic plants secondary metabolites, widely distributed in all parts of trees and herbs. The role of these substances in many metabolic processes is very important. Vegetable tannins have been implicated as probable antinutritional factors, decreasing the assimilation of diet protein assimilation by cattle. On the other hand, protective antioxidant and antimutagenic properties have been ascribed for these compounds. Characterization of vegetable tannins is important in order to find new sources of natural raw materials with medical and pharmaceutical applications. Protein precipitation capacity as a function of pH, competitive protein and ADN binding assays and the determination of tannins concentration are described. Radioisotope labeled protein and tannins were used in all of the determinations.

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