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Long-term trials have a twofold role in life sciences, acting as both live laboratories and public collections. Long-term trials are not simply scientific curios or the honoured relics of a museum, but highly valuable live ecological models that can never be replaced or restarted if once terminated or suspended. These trials provide valuable and dynamic databases for solving scientific problems. The present paper is intended to give a brief summary of the crop production aspects of long-term trials.

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The milling and baking quality of wheat is mainly determined by the genetic basis, but may also be influenced by management techniques. Series of winter wheat varieties were examined under identical agronomic conditions in the experimental years of 1996-2001. Weed control, the rate and application time of nitrogen top dressing, the use of insecticide and fungicide and the climate of the production year were evaluated as main factors. In the present study two major characteristics: the protein and gluten content of grain samples, were examined. The effect of nitrogen fertilization proved to have the strongest impact on both quality indexes. no significant quality differences were induced by the various means of weed control. Plant protection treatments had a rather diverse effect on the contents of the protein and gluten in certain years. The protein and gluten values were correlated in all the experimental treatments, but the level of the correlation showed considerable variation. The effect of crop year proved to be the strongest, followed by fertilization, from among the quality-determining factors. The protein versus gluten correlation was also found to be the closest in the case of nitrogen top dressing applications.

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A stressz szerepe a szocioökonómiai helyzet és a végrehajtó működések közötti kapcsolat szempontjából gyermekkorban

The Role of Stress in the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Executive Functions in Childhood

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Réka Kassai
,
Judit Futó
, and
Zsófia K. Takács

Háttér és célkitűzések: A szocioökonómiai szempontból hátrányos helyzetben felnövő gyermekek az élet számos területén, köztük az olyan kognitív készségek fejlődésében is, mint a végrehajtó funkciók mutatnak elmaradást a magasabb társadalmi osztályú családok gyermekeihez képest. Feltételezhető, hogy ezen jelenség hátterében álló egyik mechanizmus az, hogy ezek a gyermekek fokozottabb káros stresszhatásoknak vannak kitéve az életük során. Jelen ta.nulmány célja az volt, hogy magyarországi mintán tanulmányozzuk a szocioökonómiai helyzet egyes komponenseinek és a végrehajtó funkcióknak a kapcsolatát óvodás korú gyermekek esetében, illetve a kortizolhormonszint (mint a stressz indikátora) ezen kapcsolatban játszott szerepét.

Módszer: A kutatás során négy különböző óvodából toboroztunk szocioökonómiai szempontból heterogén mintát. Az elemzéseket 76 résztvevő (45 fiú, 31 lány, életkoruk 52-83 hó, átlag életkoruk 70,85 hó) adatai alapján végeztük: A szocioökonómiai státuszra vonatkozó információkat szülőktől gyűjtöttük kérdőíves módszerrel, a gyerekek végrehajtó funkcióit számítógépen végzett neuropszichológiai tesztekkel (Corsi-kocka, Go/ No-Go, Hearts and Flowers) vizsgáltuk, a gyerekek stresszszintjére pedig a kortizolhormonszintjük (reggeli nyálminta, ELIZA-módszerrel történő elemzés) alapján következtettünk.

Eredmények: Az eredményeink összhangban vannak a korábbi szakirodalmak következtetéseivel, miszerint az általunk mért szocioökonómiai helyzet komponensei közül csak a szülői iskolázottság mutat szignifikáns kapcsolatot a gyermek végrehajtó működéseivel, a csaád bevétele nem. Továbbá a kortizolhormonszint részleges mediáló hatással van ezen változók kapcsolatára.

Következtetések: Megalapozottan feltételezhetjük tehát, hogy a fokozott stressz az egyik tényező, amelyen keresztül a szocioökonómiai helyzet befolyással van a gyermekek kognitív készségeire, azonban további faktorok is meghatározóak lehetnek.

Background: Socioeconomically disadvantaged children lag behind in several areas of life, including the development of cognitive skills like executive functions, as compared to children living in higher social classes. It can be assumed that one ofthe underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon is that these children are exposed to an increased amount of adverse stress throughout their lives. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the components of socioeconomic status and executive functions in a Hungarian sample of preschool children, and the role ofcortisol hormone levels (as an indicator of stress) in this regard.

Methods: We recruited a socioeconomically diverse sample of children from four different preschools. The analyses reported in the present study were performed based on data from 76 participants (45 male, 31 female, a.ge mnge 52-83 months, mean age 70,85 months). Information regarding the socioeconomic status was collected from parents by questionnaires, children’s executive functions were measured by computerized neuropsychological tests (Corsi Block, Go/No-Go, Hearts and Flowers), and their stress level was assessed by cortisol hormone levels from saliva samples (morning sampling, measured by ELISA method).

Results: Our results are in line with previous findings showing that it is only parental education that has a significant relationship with the executive functions ofchildren, while family income does not. In addition, cortisol hormone levels were found to partially mediate the relationship between parental educational level and children’s executive function capacities.

Conclusions: We can conclude that increased stress is one of the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences children’s cognitive skills, but other factors may also be determinants.

Open access
Educatio
Authors:
Áron Szilveszter
,
Réka Kassai
,
Zsófia K. Takács
, and
Judit Futó

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-vírusjárvány miatt 2020 márciusától júniusáig bevezetett iskolai digitális munkarend az oktatási rendszer minden résztvevőjét számos új feladat elé állította. Feltételezzük, hogy különösen nagy kihívást jelenthetett a hátrányos helyzetű családok számára (Jakab 2020). Jelen tanulmányban egy kérdőíves kutatás eredményeit mutatjuk be, amelyben azt vizsgáltuk, hogy a szocioökonómiai státusz, a háztartási rendezettség, a családi rutin, valamint a gyermek tanulásba tett erőfeszítése közül mely tényezők jelzik előre az iskolai digitális munkarendben a tanulási sikerességet. A mintát középosztálybeli és hátrányos helyzetű, romatelepen élő, alsó tagozatos gyermeket nevelő felnőttek alkották. A hierarchikus lineáris regresszió eredményei azt mutatják, hogy a szocioökonómiai státusz önmagában nem szignifikáns prediktora a tanulási sikerességnek, azonban a tanulási erőfeszítés, a háztartási rendezettség és a családi rutin igen. A fenti eredmények – habár pusztán összefüggéseket és nem feltétlen kauzális kapcsolatokat mutatnak – alátámasztják, hogy hátrányos helyzetű gyermekek feltételezhetően sikeresen támogathatók a távoktatásban való eredményes részvételben egy, a fenti változókat célzó, intervencióval.

Summary. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the education system switched to digital distant learning education from March to June 2020. These changes posed a number of new challenges to students, teachers and parents alike. We assume that disadvantaged families were in an even more vulnerable position (Jakab 2020). Thus, we aimed to conduct a study to examine whether and how certain factors, including socioeconomic status, household chaos, family routine, and children’s learning effort affected learning success during this period of homeschooling. The sample consisted of high/middle-class and disadvantaged (living in a Roma settlements) caregivers of 1st–4th grader children. Our results indicate that socioeconomic status alone was not a significant predictor of learning success, however, learning effort, household chaos, and family routine were found to be important predictors. These results – although purely correlational – might suggest that a targeted intervention can be expected to effectively help disadvantaged children adapt to and succeed in a digital distant learning education setting.

Open access

Abstract  

The composition and the permeation properties of the skin are dependent on age. In the animal models for permation studies, age affects the mechanical as well as the permeation properties significantly. The time dependence of permeation of 147Pm3+ from aqueous solution was established by the animal skin model and the age dependence of promethium permeation through the skin was examined. The aim was to find the optimum rat skin age model for radionuclide permeation studies and to assess the relative importance of the main permeation pathways: transepidermal and transfollicular permeation. The skin from 5-day-old rats (5DR) was found to represent the optimum animal model to study transepidermal permeation of ions. The skin from 9-day-old rats (9DR) was selected to study transfollicular permeation of ions. Comparison of the permeated amounts of promethium through the skin without hairs (3 DR to 6 DR) and with hairs (7DR to 12DR) showed that the additional permation mode via follicles significantly contributed to the permeation rate and extent.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
M. Jolánkai
,
Á. Tarnawa
,
K. Kassai
,
H. Nyárai
, and
Zs. Szentpétery

Agriculture is highly affected by climate change. Climate change impacts may influence almost all fields of agricultural activities; production efficiency, quantitative and qualitative deterioration of crop yields produced for alimentary purposes, and determine post-harvest manifestation of agricultural products inducing hazard in the field of food safety, transport, storage and distribution. Soil-climatic conditions, amount and distribution of precipitation, anomalies and extremities of temperature as well as various manifestation of air movement from stand still to storms are some of the main factors that may influence agriculture. Pollution has been considered solely as the presence of unfavourable alien matter in the environment, but in reality pollution is far more than that. Agri-environmental pollution is largely independent of mankind, since many pollution or degradation processes may begin with no direct relationship to human activities. Soil degradation, or irreversible damage to natural ecosystems by climatic factors (drought, flood, water logging, salinity) are the most frequent consequences. Biological pollution, like weed infestation, epidemics and gradations, pollen allergy, the poisonous effect of mycotoxins on farm animals and humans, new pests and diseases, the emission of greenhouse gases, and biological factors which cause quality deterioration represent an increasing pressure on agri-environment. This paper is intended to give an overview of some research activities and their results in relation with climatic aspects of agri-environmental pollution in Hungary.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
M. Jolánkai
,
Á. Tarnawa
,
H. F. Nyárai
,
Z. Szentpétery
, and
M. K. Kassai

Long-term trials are established in order to explore and observe plant and soil interrelationships in situ. Long-term trials can be described as live instruments providing ceteris paribus conditions in temporal sequences.

This review provides an introduction to major long-term trials in Hungary and in other parts of the world. It gives a brief summary of the origins of plant nutritional research, beginning with some data from Homer and the willow tree experiment of van Helmont, as well as the discovery of physiological processes by von Liebig, Lawes and Boussingault. The most profound long-term trials, like the Orto Botanico in Padova, the Linné Garden in Uppsala and the Broadbalk in Rothamsted are presented in the paper.

The agronomic, educational and scientific benefits of the major Hungarian long-term trials are also discussed, from Westsik (1929) to Martonvásár and the National Plant Nutrition Trials (OMTK) set up in 1963. There is a list of experimental sites giving information on the most important recent long-term trial locations and their activities.

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Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield samples taken from a consecutive series of crop years representing drought, normal and moist conditions at the Nagygombos experimental site of the Szent István University have been evaluated. The impact of N topdressing and crop year conditions on the performance of protein and wet gluten content were studied.The results suggest that ascending levels of N topdressing, and increased number of applications had a beneficial effect on the protein content, as well as on wet gluten values. Crop year had a significant effect on quality manifestation. The drier the crop year, the better the recorded quality performance. The magnitude of changes was bigger in case of gluten than in that of protein values. There were minor differences between the two varieties examined, especially in their response patterns to nitrogen supply. Dough formation depends mainly on the gliadin/ glutenin ratio, but there is less information on the agronomic and climatic impacts that may cause alterations in that.

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Scope of the study was to find more effective N fertilisation doses and applications to reach not only higher quantity but better quality grains as well as to be able to help preserving the continuity of feed and food quality improvement, since wheat is one of the most consumed crops all over the world.

Samples of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties harvested from the experimental field of the Szent István University in two consecutive crop seasons had been examined in the laboratory of the Crop Production Institute. Effects of nitrogen (N) application on the performance of grain protein were tested. Five high quality winter wheat varieties were studied regarding grain quality traits affected by applying undivided and split doses of N. The evaluated samples show that increasing doses of N topdressing and increasing time of application have beneficial effects on the yield and the value of protein content. Wheat grain protein value ranged between 9.9% of the untreated Mv Karéj and Alföld, where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied resulting in the highest value of 16.0%. Similarly, the gluten values among untreated and N applied plots were in a wide range. Mv Karéj had the lowest wheat gluten value on untreated plot with 18.4% and Alfold had the highest value with 36.8% on the plot where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied. There were no significant changes recorded on test weight and thousand kernel weight. In the case of baking quality, there were significant differences between varieties. The best records were obtained in the case of Mv Toborzö followed by Mv Karéj.

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Abstract

Soybean is one of the most important leguminous crops that contributes to human alimentation and animal feed. Soybean grain with its high protein and valuable lipid content is an essential component for the food and feed industries worldwide. Apart from the genetically determined quality characteristics of a certain variety, management practices may have an influence on the manifestation of quality parameters. At the Department of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, agronomic impacts on grain yield, protein and lipid content of soybean crop has been studied in a replicated field trial. Nitrogen (N) application and various means of weed control were studied, and grain yields were evaluated in accordance with the treatments. The results obtained suggest, that N topdressing has positive but no significant effect on grain yield, however, the means of weed control resulted in an almost twofold yield improvement compared to the control. The treatments had diverse effects regarding both protein and lipid contents of the crop yield, however, significant protein and lipid yield improvement of the crop could be observed.

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