A thermal resistive window flow counter available for hard beta-emitters in radio gaschromatography effluents was developed.
The plateau region of the counter showed more than 150 volts long even if the counter was operated at temperature up to 200°C.
The radio gas-chromatograms for real samples containing high boiling compounds showed high resolution and shapper peaks.
A more exact and reliable irradiation system for the photon activation analysis by the use of high power electron linear accelerator
was originally designed and tested. Applications of a simple beam position monitor and a thin beryllium oxide ceramic disk
in this system made possible to control the beam position on the center axis of sample during irradiation, and also permitted
the reproducible irradiations in situ.
The aim of this study was to measure the distribution and inventories of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb (210Pbexcess) in sediment core samples from brackish Lake Obuchi, which is in the vicinity of nuclear fuel facilities in Rokkasho Village, Japan. The inventory of the 239+240Pu activity in the sediment samples from the estuary of a freshwater river, the central point of the lake, and the deepest point in the lake were 0.18, 0.29, and 0.24 kBq·m–2, respectively. The inventories of 137Cs and 210Pbexcess in sediments were 0.83–1.2 kBq·m–2 and 25–30 kBq·m–2, respectively. The mean 239+240Pu/137Cs and 210Pbexcess/137Cs activity ratios were 0.23 and 28, respectively. The239+240Pu/137Cs activity ratios were approximately 13–24 times the ratio expected from global fallout. The inventories of 239+240Pu and 210Pb in sediments were higher than the inventory expected from atmospheric fallout, but the 137Cs inventory was significantly lower than expected.
Authors:S. Ueda, K. Kondo, J. Inaba, H. Kutsukake, and K. Nakata
order to evaluate the transport of 3H and 137Cs
radionuclides in semi-closed brackish Lake Obuchi, Japan, bordered by nuclear
fuel cycling facilities, a 3D-lower-trophic eco-hydrodynamic model has been
developed and validated. In a short-term prediction, 3H and 137Cs
activity levels in water should be in an agreement with field measurements. It
became clear that the results depended on the mixing of fresh water and
seawater in the model. Moreover, a short-term simulation estimated that most 3H
and 137Cs flowed to the ocean rather than remaining in the lake.
Based on calculations over the past 50 years, a peak of 137Cs in
sediment was in 1963, when the maximum 137Cs fallout was observed.
The calculation showed a rapid decrease after that peak, however, the field
measurement data gradually declined. This suggested that the process by which 137Cs
accumulated from the watershed to the lake was actually slower in the field
than in the model calculations. The model may be successfully applied to a
variety of different environmental situations as a generic tool for evaluating
the concentration and migration of 3H and 137Cs in a
Authors:S. Ueda, H. Hasegawa, Y. Takaku, and K. Kondo
The behavior of uranium under various redox conditions was investigated in the brackish Obuchi lake surrounded by an uranium enrichment plant and facilities currently under construction for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in Rokkasho Village in northern Japan. Our investigation showed that uranium in water under oxic conditions can be explained by the simple mixing of freshwater and seawater, and the source of uranium in the lake is mainly seawater. The ratios of 238U/salinity under oxic conditions were approximately 0.09-0.12 g.l-1.psu-1. However, the ratios of 238U/salinity in bottom layer water under anoxic condition in summer were lower (0.07-0.09 g.l-1.psu-1) than those in seawater. 238U concentrations in pore water sampled under anoxic conditions were very low (0.05-0.06 g.l-1.psu-1). Moreover, the relationships between the 238U/Al ratios and the Fe/Al ratios of particle substances were strongly correlated. This suggests that uranium in the bottom-layer water may be precipitated to an insoluble form in the anoxic state, and Fe is the major carrier of insoluble uranium.
Authors:Y. Kanda, Y. Oki, A. Endo, M. Numajiri, and K. Kondo
The irradiation of atmospheric air with high-energy protons has been performed at the 12 GeV proton synchrotron. The specific activity of 13N, one of the principal airborne radioactivities, was measured as a function of the irradiation time at a dose rate of about 6·1016 eV/g/s, and compared with the calculated values. The predominant chemical species of 13N produced were found to be 13N2and 13NO2. Their proportions were approximately 55% for 13N2 and 45% for13NO2, being almost independent of the irradiation time. Smaller quantities of 13NO and H13NO2 were also observed. Measurements of radiolytic products showed that ozone is a main product and that NO2predominates among the products of nitrogen compounds, including HNO2 and HNO3. The G-value for ozone formation in air was estimated from the experimental data as 6.4 molecules/100 eV.
Aerosol-size distributions of218Po were determined for the accelerator tunnel air sampled during machine operation and for the basement air of a concrete
building, where the number and the size distribution of non-radioactive aerosols are greatly different from each other. The218Po distributions depended very much on the size distributions of ambient non-radioactive aerosols, and could be well explained
by an attachment model of218Po to ambient non-radioactive aerosols.
Authors:S. Ueda, H. Kakiuchi, K. Kondo, and J. Inaba
In order to identify the concentration of tritium (3H) in areas of fresh, brackish and sea water, bordered by nuclear fuel facilities at Rokkasho-Village, Aomori, Japan, water
samples were collected from 2001 to 2004 at six points in those areas. Concentration ranges of tritium in fresh river water,
brackish lake and seawater samples were 0.60 to 1.1 Bq. l-1(mean value 0.79 Bq. l-1), 0.20 to 0.87 Bq. l-1(mean value 0.41 Bq. l-1), and 0.08 to 0.25 Bq. l-1(mean value 0.15 Bq. l-1), respectively. Relationships between tritium concentrations and salinity in the samples showed a clear negative correlation.
Moreover, the seasonal variation of tritium in water from Rokkasho-Village was high in spring and low in fall.
Authors:Sh. Sasaki, E. Tega, A. Shimada, S. Akahori, T. Suzuki, K. Okuno, and K. Kondo
The separation efficiency of hollow-filament polyimide membranes for 3H and 41Ar is preliminarily examined for a potential application to continuous gas monitoring systems for analysis of stack emission from accelerator facilities. The basic gas separation characteristics of the membranes are experimentally investigated, and a preliminary gas monitor design is proposed. The results indicate that the membranes are capable of selectively enriching hydrogen by more than 25 times, with negligible variation with respect to the species of isotope.
Authors:E. Norton, K. Kondo, K. Karlstrom, R. Lambrecht, A. Wolf, and S. Treves
A silver chloride co-precipitation and ion exchange separation method is described for the carrier-free isolation of77Br bromide from isotopically enriched77Se targets following dissolution of the irradiated77Se in nitric acid. A cation exchange procedure has been devised to remove the silver and yield a dilute hydrochloric acid
solution containing ≈90% of the precipitated77Br as bromide. The radiochemical and chemical composition of several preparations have been analyzed. A method for the quantitative
recovery of the isotopically enriched selenium is described.