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We try to characterize the number of di .erent elements in A = {a 1, a 2 a n}j n such that {a 1 +a 2, a 2 +a 3a n +a 1}=Z n or {a 2 -a 1, a 3 -a 2a 1 -a n}=Z n .Partial results are proved.E.g.,in the second case for odd n all the integers in ((3 n +1)/4, n) occur.

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Growth characteristics, such as basal stem diameter, total length of wooded branches and root/shoot ratios in different ecological populations of Fumana procumbenswere studied in the perennial open sand grassland Festucetum vaginataeunder different climatic conditions in Hungary. The age of individual plants was determined by counting the annual rings in the basal section of stems. Basal stem diameters and their average yearly increment as well as the total length of wooded branches with individuals of the same age were significantly higher under wet conditions. The close relation of basal stem diameters and branch length with age could be described by linear regression both under wet and dry conditions. There was no significant differences in the root/shoot ratios between the dry and wet sites. Having established a reliable relation between basal stem diameter and age of Fumanaindividuals, authors developed a simple, quick and non-destructive field method for age determination of Fumana.

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Arthur Jensen és az IQ-vita 1969-től 2000-IG

Arthur Jensen and thirty years of the IQ controversy

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Kristóf Kovács

A tanulmány - Arthur Jensen munkásságát középpontba helyezve - áttekinti az IQ-vita elmúlt 30 évének történetét. Bemutatja az általános intelligencia klasszikus, örökléselvű koncepcióját, valamint az azzal szembeni legfontosabb kihívásokat. Külön hangsúlyozza a koncepció társadalmi vonatkozásait és jelentőségét, valamint a biológiai orientációjú intelligenciakutatás helyét a pszichológiában. Végül bemutatja a közelmúltban újra fellángoló IQ-vitában elhangzott fontosabb érveket.

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The changes of cell surface hydrophilicity in Bacillus subtilis were analyzed in response to oxygen-limitation, heat shock, salt stress, pH-shock, phosphate- and carbon-limitation.  Although cell surface hydrophilicity varied during growth phases, an increase of surface hydrophilicity was observed under several of these stress conditions.  An observed drop in intracellular GTP and/or ATP may be an element of the signal transduction pathway leading to an increase in surface hydrophilicity in response to environmental stresses.  Attachment of cells to soil particles under salt stress conditions is strongly influenced by the degS/degU two-component system, which thereby provides a mechanism for the bacteria to escape from the hostile environment.

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Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by mould fungi belonging to several Aspergillus and Penicillium species. It is formed during the storage of cereal grains and other plant-derived products. OTA ingested by humans and animals with the food or feed may exert deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ochratoxin contamination of the most important potential sources of OTA. The OTA content of cereal samples for human consumption (36 baking wheat, 16 wheat flour and 6 maize coarse meal samples) and feed grain samples (30 feeding wheat, 32 feeding maize and 20 feeding barley samples) collected in the mid-phase or at the end of the storage period and of 50 commercial coffee samples was determined. The analyses were performed by immunoaffinity column - high-performance liquid chromatography (IAC-HPLC). The limit of detection of the method was 0.1 ng/g. Of the wheat samples intended for human consumption, 8.3% contained OTA at 0.29 ng/g on the average (OTA ranges: 0.12-0.5 ng/g; Table 2). The OTA contamination of wheat flour and maize meal samples for human consumption was similar to that of the baking wheat samples. OTA contamination was found in 26.7% of the feeding wheat, 15.6% of the feeding maize and 35% of the feeding barley samples. The average values and the ranges of OTA levels found in the above samples were 12.2 and 0.3-62.8 ng/g, 4.9 and 1.9-8.3 ng/g, and 72 and 0.14-212 ng/g, respectively (Table 3). Sixty-six percent of the coffee samples were contaminated with OA (average level: 0.57 ng/g, ranges: 0.17-1.3 ng/g; Table 4). OTA contamination of baking wheat samples was found to be relatively low, presumably as a result of the favourable weather at harvest and the optimal storage conditions. Calculations made on the basis of the obtained results show that the daily OTA intake of an adult human from edible cereals is only 6.7 ng, while the amount taken up with coffee is 4.1 ng daily. The high prevalence and high levels of OTA contamination in feed grains can be explained by the unfavourable storage conditions, and this finding suggests that OA-related health problems may arise in animals, and that foods of animal origin may be contaminated with this mycotoxin.

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