Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 25 items for

  • Author or Editor: K. Krishnan x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract  

Calcium may be measured in vivo by neutron activation analysis /IVNAA/, observing the 3.1 MeV -ray from the decay of49Ca. Normally the detection of this -ray is done in a heavily shielded whole body counter. It is shown that the use of shielding is unnecessary. As a result, the cost of building an IVNAA facility for Ca is very much reduced.

Restricted access

The effect of two commercially available metal oxide curing agents, PbO2 and MnO2, on the cure time, kinetic parameters and ultimate tensile strength of the polysulphide polymer was investigated. The kinetic parameters for the thermal decomposition of the two systems were evaluated from their TG data. Both the energy of activation and pre-exponential factor showed a systematic increase with increase in cure and levelled off after the reaction. The cure time was also followed by determining the mechanical properties of the samples at regular intervals. The ultimate tensile strength values and the kinetic parameters follow similar trend with respect to the cure time. The kinetic parameters and the ultimate tensile strength for the PbO2 cured polysulphide system were on the higher side.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The kinetics of theurethane-forming cure reaction of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) in presence of ferric tris (acetyl acetonate) (FeAA) catalyst was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Arrhenius activation parameters, viz., activation energy E and pre-exponential factor A were evaluated using the non-isothermal integral Coats-Redfern equation. The cure reaction was catalysed by ferric acetyl acetonate (FeAA), as revealed from the decrease in reaction temperatures and the increase in rate constants; however, the computed activation energy did not show any correlation to the catalyst concentration. The values of E and A for the uncatalysed reaction at different heating rates showed interdependence through kinetic compensation (KC) effect. Using KC correction, E values were normalised for the value of A for the uncatalysed reaction under identical conditions. The normalised E values decreased exponentially with increase in concentration of FeAA, showing high propensity of the HTPB-IPDI system for catalysis.

Restricted access

Abstract

Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is known to have the ability to measure heat capacity of materials more accurately than the conventional differential scanning calorimeter. However, the accuracy of the measured heat capacity displays significant dependence on various experimental parameters such as period of modulation (p), amplitude of modulation (a), geometry of sample (g), heating rate (r), etc. One of the key features of this system is the ability to measure heat capacity under quasi-isothermal conditions. In the present investigation, heat capacity of a well-established system namely sapphire and thoria was measured by TMDSC under dynamic mode and also under quasi-isothermal mode. The experimental parameters, mentioned above p, a, g, and r are varied to establish the conditions for measuring heat capacity accurately.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Chemical characterization of rubidium uranium(IV) trisulfate, Rb2U(SO4)3, a new chemical assay standard for uranium requires accurate analysis of rubidium. A gravimetric and an X-ray fluorescence method (XRF) for the determination of rubidium in this compound are described. In the gravimetric method, rubidium is determined as Rb2Na[Co(NO2)6].H2O without separating uranium with a precision of the order of ±0.5%. In the XRF method, the concentration ratio of rubidium to uranium, CRb/CU, is determined in the solid samples by the binary ratio method using calibration between intensity ratios (IRb/IU) and concentration ratios (CRb/CU). The concentration of rubidium is derived using the uranium value which is known with a precision better than ±0.05%. The XRF method has a precision better than ±0.8% for rubidium determination.

Restricted access

Abstract  

An X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of uranium in liquid samples by absorbing drops of solution on cellulose discs. Internal standards thorium, strontium or yttrium are added in the uranium solution to follow the non-uniform absorption of the liquid on the disc. A precision of better than ±0.5% is obtained for uranium determination with all the three internal standards. The method was also employed to determine uranium in the presence of plutonium and americium without any interference effects.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Nitrogen in the human body is measured in vivo using prompt neutron capture gamma-rays. The quantity of nitrogen can then be used as measured of protein. Data are presented on three groups of subjects; volunteers of different ages, those with liver ailments, and those on peritoneal dialysis. The data show that the nitrogen measurements given information (in accord with clinical findings) which is not given by indirect methods of estimating lean body mass.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis provides a useful clinical test to assess bone mass status in vivo. The neutron flux is obtained from Pu/Be sources and49Ca activity is measured by NaI detectors. For diagnostic value, the49Ca measurement is related to the mean value for normal subjects of the same body size. This normalized index, our CaBI, is used extensively to diagnose the bone loss associated with osteoporosis and to asses changes in bone mass with progression of disease and in response to treatments. Our facility operates at maximum capacity (35 tests/wk.). The hospital location and the dependability and ease of operation (provided by neutron sources) have facilitated extensive clinical use.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) provides information regarding mass changes in the sample resulting from heat treatment under controlled environment. However, it does not provide any chemical information regarding the gases evolved during the thermal degradation. Using FT-IR spectrometry in combination with TG, it is often possible to identify the evolved gases, and also monitor their evolution profiles during thermal degradation. In this study, we present the TG/FT-IR combined analysis of incineration and pyrolysis of some common plastics such as high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polystyrene (PS). This study demonstrates the utility of such combined analysis in providing useful information regarding the use of thermal treatment for recycling or incineration.

Restricted access