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  • Author or Editor: K. Krzymiński x
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Abstract  

Enthalpies of sublimation of acridine, 9-acridinamine, N-methyl-9-acridinamine, 10-methyl-9-acridinimine, N,N-dimethyl-9-acridinamine and N-methyl-10-methyl-9-acridinimine were determined by fitting to thermogravimetric curves with the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. These values compare well with crystal lattice energies predicted theoretically as the sum of electrostatic, dispersive and repulsive interactions. Partial charges for these calculations were obtained on an ab initio level, while atomic parameters were taken from literature.

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Abstract  

The decomposition of the quaternary salts mentioned in the title was examined at the quantum mechanical Hartree-Fock level of theory employing pseudopotentials combined with a SBKJ** basis set. This enabled identification of intermediate and transition state species on the reaction pathway and prediction of the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to the dissociation of the compounds in the gaseous phase. Application of classical methods permitted the lattice energies of salts, whose crystal structures had been established earlier, to be predicted. Combination of these latter characteristics with the heats of formation of gaseous halide ions (available from the literature) and the relevant cations (obtained at the density functional (B 3LYP)/6-31G**level of theory) provided heats of formation of the salts. On the basis of these values, the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to the dissociation of the compounds were predicted. The characteristics thus obtained compare quite well with those available in the literature or determined in this work on the basis of TG or DSC measurements. These investigations have shed more light on the mechanism of the thermal dissociation of quaternary salts, and more generally on thermal processes involving solids.

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Abstract  

The melting enthalpies and melting points of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylate, its eleven alkyl-substituted derivatives in the phenyl fragment and eight 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonates derived from them, were determined by DSC. The volatilisation enthalpies and temperatures of twelve phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates were either measured by DSC or obtained by fitting TG curves to the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship. For the compounds whose crystal structures are known, crystal lattice enthalpies were determined computationally as the sum of electrostatic, dispersive and repulsive interactions. By combining the enthalpies of formation of gaseous phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates or 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium and trifluoromethanesulphonate ions, obtained by quantum chemistry methods, and the corresponding enthalpies of sublimation or crystal lattice enthalpies, the enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the solid phase were predicted. In the case of the phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates, the computationally predicted crystal lattice enthalpies correspond reasonably well to the experimentally obtained enthalpies of sublimation. Analysis of crystal lattice enthalpy contributions indicates that the crystal lattices of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates are stabilised predominantly by dispersive interactions between molecules, whereas the crystal lattices of their quaternary salts are stabilised by electrostatic interactions between ions.

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Abstract  

10-Methylacridinium chloride, bromide and iodide were prepared in crystalline forms (the first two salts as monohydrates) and subjected to thermogravimetric investigations. Decomposition of the compounds is initially accompanied by the liberation of water (in case of monohydrates), halomethanes and acridine molecules. As decomposition proceeds, side reactions occur which are reflected in a complex pattern of thermogravimetric curves. TG traces corresponding to the initial decomposition stage were used to determine the kinetic characteristics of the thermal dissociation of the salts. MNDO/d, AM1 and PM3 methods were employed independently to examine reaction pathways and to predict thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for the thermal decomposition of the compounds. These data were subsequently supplemented with theoretically determined crystal lattice energies, which enabled the relevant characteristics for the decomposition of crystalline phases to be predicted. The theoretically predicted characteristics are qualitatively comparable with those originating from thermogravimetric investigations, which allows one to believe that both are valid.

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Abstract  

The melting points and melting enthalpies of nine phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates—nitro-, methoxy- or halogen-substituted in the phenyl fragment—and their 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonate derivatives were determined by DSC. The volatilisation temperatures and enthalpies of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates were either measured by DSC or obtained by fitting TG curves to the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship. For the compounds whose crystal structures are known, crystal lattice energies and enthalpies were determined computationally as the sum of electrostatic, dispersive and repulsive interactions. By combining the enthalpies of formation of gaseous phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates or 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonate ions, obtained by the DFT method, and the corresponding enthalpies of sublimation and/or crystal lattice enthalpies, the enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the solid phase were predicted. In the case of the phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates, the computationally predicted crystal lattice enthalpies correspond reasonably well with the experimentally obtained enthalpies of sublimation. The crystal lattices of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates are stabilised predominantly by dispersive interactions between molecules, whilst the crystal lattices of their quaternary salts are stabilised by electrostatic interactions between ions.

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Abstract  

The enthalpies and temperatures of melting and sublimation of acridin-9(10H)-one, 10-methylacridin-9(10H)-one, 2,10-dimethylacridin-9(10H)-one, 10-methyl-2-nitroacridin-9(10H)-one, 10-ethylacridin-9(10H)-one and 10-phenylacridin-9(10H)-one were measured by DSC. Enthalpies and temperatures of volatilisation were also obtained by fitting TG curves to the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Complementary investigations for anthracene showed the extent to which the thermodynamic characteristics thus obtained compare with those determined by means of other techniques. For compounds whose crystal structures are known, experimental enthalpies of sublimation correspond reasonably well to crystal lattice enthalpies predicted theoretically as the sum of electrostatic, dispersive and repulsive interactions. Analysis of crystal lattice enthalpy contributions indicates that dispersive interactions always predominate. Interactions are enhanced in acridin-9(10H)-one where intermolecular hydrogen bonds occur: this is reflected in the relatively high enthalpy of sublimation.

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