At present Swedens, like other industrialized countries, a highly secularized society. The Church of Sweden, divorced from the state in the year 2000, has lost most of its influence and has become more or less a service institution to lend solemnity to the rites-de-passage of life: baptism, weddings and funerals. Since the 1930s there has been a politically oriented change in the view of the family. The core family as the foundation of society has gradually been dissolved. The system in which the housewife takes care of her family and home with the husband as the sole provider has changed. Both husband and wife pay tax on their own incomes, rather than each paying tax on half of the fam ly’s total income.
Authors:N. Yu, R. Laurenz, L. Siler, P. K. W. Ng, E. Souza and J. M. Lewis
White wheat is, categorically, more susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) than red wheat. Physiological maturity (PM), defined as when the seeds reach their maximum dry weight, is a critical time before harvesting. The objective of this study was to determine a reference level of α-amylase activity and the corresponding Falling Number (FN) value near the time of PM of selected red and white cultivars in the absence of PHS inducing conditions. Twenty-four soft winter wheat genotypes (12 red and 12 white) adapted to Michigan with varying historic levels of susceptibility to PHS were planted in an α-lattice design in two locations from 2008 to 2010. Spikes were collected three days before PM, at PM, and three days post PM. Samples were freeze-dried, threshed, milled and evaluated for α-amylase activity and FN value using high throughput method. Within genotype, clear trends were observed in the reduction of α-amylase activity and the increase of FN value during the physiological maturation. A nonlinear relationship between α-amylase activity and FN value was fit with an r2 of 0.801. Significant differences were observed for genotype for both α-amylase activity and FN value for all collection time points. No significant differences were found between red and white wheat, categorically, at any of the three time-points in the absence of PHS. The evaluation results provide a critical reference prior to induction of PHS. The α-amylase activity and FN tests show different advantages in analyzing PHS samples as the relationship between α-amylase activity and FN value is not linear over wide-ranging results.
Authors:S. Wagner, S. Boone, J. Chamberlin, C. Duffy, D. Efurd, K. Israel, N. Koski, D. Kottmann, D. Lewis, P. Lindahl, F. Roensch and R. Steiner
Utilization of thermal ionization mass spectrometry as a routine analytical service provided to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Bioassay Program has evolved significantly since its implementation just over three years ago. Converting this unique research tool designed to support nuclear weapons testing to a quasi-production mode for the routine analysis of ~300 urine samples/year for ultra-low levels of plutonium has required resolution of numerous practical issues. These issues include clean-room sample preparation, adequate tracer recovery, customer specified turn-around times, throughput, water and urine blank values, statistical data reduction, and quality control and performance evaluation sample requirements.
Authors:L. Tandon, E. Hastings, J. Banar, J. Barnes, D. Beddingfield, D. Decker, J. Dyke, D. Farr, J. FitzPatrick, D. Gallimore, S. Garner, R. Gritzo, T. Hahn, G. Havrilla, B. Johnson, K. Kuhn, S. LaMont, D. Langner, C. Lewis, V. Majidi, P. Martinez, R. McCabe, S. Mecklenburg, D. Mercer, S. Meyers, V. Montoya, B. Patterson, R. Pereyra, D. Porterfield, J. Poths, D. Rademacher, C. Ruggiero, D. Schwartz, M. Scott, K. Spencer, R. Steiner, R. Villarreal, H. Volz, L. Walker, A. Wong and C. Worley
The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin.
The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Materials Signatures Program has implemented a graded “conduct of operations”
type analysis flow path approach for determining the key nuclear, chemical, and physical signatures needed to identify the
manufacturing process, intended use, and origin of interdicted nuclear material. This analysis flow path includes both destructive
and non-destructive characterization techniques and has been exercized against different nuclear materials from LANL’s special
nuclear materials archive. Results obtained from the case study will be presented to highlight analytical techniques that
offer the critical attribution information.