A number of generalized metric spaces have been defined or characterized in terms of g-functions. Symmetric g-functions are discussed by C. Good, D. Jennings and A. M. Mohamad. In this paper, some questions about symmetric g-functions are answered, particularly it is shown that every sym-wg-space is expandable.
An efficient method used to separate five bioactive compounds from Gelidium amansii was optimized by the HCI software. The optimum composition of mobile phase for high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation was obtained. The elution profiles were calculated by the polynomial theory based on the retention factor ln k = A + BF + CF2 (F was the volume percentage of acetonitrile with 1.0% acetic acid); then, the theory was applied to calculate the elution profile in both isocratic and gradient modes by modifying different mobile phase conditions with HCI program. The calculated results of mobile phase condition suggested that acetonitrile-water (containing 1.0% acetic acid) with a linear gradient elution of 0∼30 min from 15:85 to 50:50 (v/v) was the optimized component. In the experimental conditions, the agreement between the experimental elution profiles and the calculated values of eluted concentration was relatively good.
A new technique has been developed to prepare radial hair sections for element profile analysis using a proton microprobe (PM). The technique makes use of equipment and supplies standard in histological electron microscopy laboratories. In addition to obtaining radial hair slices, adjacent 1 m thick slices can be acquired for comparative light microscope viewing. With these adjacent optical slices, element profiles of transitional phase and irregularly shaped hair are easily studied. Selected radial sections of C57L/J mouse hair, used to represent this technique, showed element distribution profiles largely similar to their histological counterpart in human hair.
Authors:H. Quan, Z. Ge, Z. Li, C. Yin, K. Zhong, Z. Hao, H. Li, and F. Ji
The desorption behaviour (desorption temperature and extent of desorption) of HF,HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl) and HFC-134a (CF3CH2F) on γ-AlF3 or catalyst supported on γ-AlF3 was studied using an adsorption apparatus and TG, DTA and DSC methods. On the basis of the results a reaction mechanism was
proposed for the preparation of HFC-134a. The γ-AlF3 employed for preparing the catalyst was expected to be stable below 550C based on the crystalline phase transition temperature
Authors:Y. Li, G. Yang, L. Luo, T. Ke, J. Zhang, K. Li, and G. He
Three wheat varieties of Atlas66 (Al-tolerant genotype), EM12 (a major elite cultivar in China) and Scout66 (Al-sensitive genotype) were used to investigate their potential mechanisms of Al toxicity. Al concentrations of 50, 75, 100 μmol l
were used and the inhibition on root elongation between Scout66 and EM12 is significantly higher than that of Al-tolerant Atlas66, which is negative correlated to the Al absorption in root apices. Organic acids secretion was checked 24 h after Al stress and only malate was detected in Atlas66, but none of the organic acids were detected in the others, suggesting that secretion of malate in root is a major mechanism of Al resistance in Al-tolerant wheat genotype. The root cell ultrastructure showed less damage in Atlas66 than that in Scout66 and EM12 under Al stress by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Tissue culture was carried out and the callus induction frequencies were all decreased on the media containing Al. The decrease of callus induction frequencies was less in Atlas66 than that in the others. It is concluded that Al damages the cell ultrastructure, resulting in the inhibition of acids secretion and cell division, which implies that the damage of cell ultrastructure is probably the key factor in Al inhibition of root growth.
In this paper, several small-scale screening test methods were discussed on evaluating the thermal hazard of reactive substances.
Generally the sensitivities of DSC and ARC are not high enough to evaluate the thermal hazards for all reactive substance,
especially, for those of complex reactions containing a phase and/or chemical reaction mechanism change in the lower temperature
range. Using the C80, however, the reaction can easily be detected in the lower temperature range due to its high sensitivity.
Therefore, the C80 gives generally more accurate results than DSC and ARC. Data from C80 and Dewar vessel were compared and
it indicates that the Dewar vessel has also high enough sensitivity to evaluate the thermal hazard and determine the heat
flux in lower temperature range of reactive substances.
Authors:H. Du, G. Li, G. Dong, K. Chiu, and C. Wai
This paper introduces a new type of extractant, sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyhydroxamic acid (HL). The extraction of UO
, Na+, K+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br– were studied with HL in chloroform. The results obtained show that UO
can be quantitatively extracted at pH above 5, whereas the extractions of K+, Na+, Ba2+ and Br– are negligible in the pH range of 2–7. The dependence of the distribution ratio of U(VI) on both the concentration of the HL and pH are linear, and they have the same slope of 2. This suggests that U(VI) appears to form a 12 complex with ligand.Uranium (VI) can be selectively separated and concentrated from interfering elements such Na, K, Sr and Br by solvent extraction with HL under specific conditions. The recovery of uranium is nearly 100% and the radionuclear purity of uranium is greater than 99.99%. Therefore, it has greatly improved the sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of trace uranium from seawater by neutron activation analysis.
This work discusses thermal behavior of Ni/MH battery with experimental methods. The present work not only provides a new
way to get more exactly parameters and thermal model, but also concentrates on thermal behavior in discharging period. With
heat generation rate gained by experiments with microcalorimeter, heat transport equations are set up and solved. The solutions
are compared with experiment results and used to understand the reactions inside the battery. Experiments with microcalorimeter
provide more reliable data to create precise thermal model.
The effect of itaconic acid (IA) content and heating rate on the stabilization reactions in poly(acrylonitrile-co-itaconic
acid) (P(AN-co-IA)) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with peak-resolving method. Increasing IA
content was effective in decreasing the initial temperature and the heat evolved, and found to enhance oxidative reactions
to some extent. While, promoting heating rate resulted in a shift of the exotherm to a higher temperature and a more rapid
liberation of heat. The percentage of area of the first exothermic peak increased with increasing heating rate, which would
be attributed to the enhancement of the free radical cyclization reactions.
Authors:H. Li, Y. Ujihira, S. Tanaka, T. Yamashita, and K. Horie
Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of PMMA, PEMA, PiPMA, PnPMA and PnBMA were performed in the temperature range between 15 and 300 K, where , and relaxational transitions occur for these polyalkylmethacrylates. The variations of free volume size and content calculated from the longest lifetime component against temperature are correlated to the results obtained by dielectric, viscoelastic and dynamic mechanical relaxation data of the polymers. The variations of free volume sizes and contents, apparent free volume fraction and size distribution of the polyalkylmethacrylates are well correlated with the rotational transitions of side chains. The location of free volumes, in which positronium annihilates can be estimated near the vicinity of alkyl groups bound to oxygen atom of side ester chains.