A systematic study was undertaken in order to find out which of the most relevant elements can be determined in water under
normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized
water samples as well as natural water of different kind were used, brought to dryness by freeze-drying and irradiated in
quartz at a neutron flux of 1014 cm−2 s−1 for 1 day. The trace element content in quartz ampoules of different origin was determined separately. The following elements
are discussed in detail including possible interferences: As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Ni, Sb,
Sc, Se, U, Zn.
By means of instrumental neutron activation, more than 20 trace elements are determined in suspended matter in Rhine water,
Main water and Rhine sediments. Monoelement and multielement standards are used for calibration. Sample collection, separation
of suspended matter by filtration or centrifugating and sample preparation are described. The results obtained by filtration
and by centrifuging are compared. Interferences in evaluation of the γ-spectra and their influence on the results are discussed.
Systematic errors are detected by participation in ring analysis.
The possibilities of trace element adsorption on different adsorbents are investigated. Three procedures are described' (a)
adsorption on activated charcoal at pH 8.5, (b) adsorption on activated charcoal in presence of dithizone at pH 8.5 and (c)
adsorption on activated charcoal in presence of sodium diethyldithiocarbaminate at pH 5.5. Of the 23 elements which have been
investigated in detail using standardised samples of water the following are determined quantitatively within an error of
10% according to procedure (a) and (b) Au, Cr, Eu, Hg, La, Sc, U and Zn, according to procedure (b) also Cd. The elements
Ag, As, Ce, Fe and Se are adsorbed according to procedure (a) and (b) with yields between 60 and 90%, according to procedure
(b) also Co. Mo is adsorbed by procedure (c) quantitatively. Cu is not detected after a decay time of 3 days. Sb is adsorbed
by all procedures with low yields between 18 and 56%. The elements Br, Ca, Cl, K and Na remain mainly in the solution. The
decontamination factors for these elements range between 102 and 106 (Na). Water from the North Sea is analysed by procedure (b).
The problems of trace element determination in sea water by neutron activation analysis are discussed. Experiments with tri-n-octylphosphinoxide
(TOPO) did not bring satisfactory results because of the strong interference of the bremsstrahlung from32P. Experiments with oxin at different pH showed that in each case only few elements are extracted in greater amounts. An extraction
apparatus is described making possible the extraction of up to 10 1 water by 50 ml of an organic solution. Extraction experiments
using different complexing agents were satisfying, but the evaporation of the organic phase to dryness for irradiation was
A procedure for monostandard INAA of 21 elements (Hg, As, Br, Cr, Sb, Se, Ba, Zn, Ca, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Rb, Sc, Sr, Ta) in Chinese Biological Standard Reference Material (peach leaves) is described. The accuracy of the procedure was checked by analyzing the U.S. NBS Standard Reference Materials SRM-1571 and SRM-1632a.
A homogeneity test of 14 elements (Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ce, Th, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Zn, Co and Eu) was made in Chinese Biological Standard Reference Material (peach leaves) by means of INAA. The procedures are described and the results are presented and discussed.
A -ray source of 300 keV was used in order to excite the fluorescent K-radiation of the heavy elements which is only weakly absorbed in the walls of metal tubes. Thus, uranium can be determined quantitatively in solutions within tubes in the concentration range form 5 mg/l to 100 g/l. The influences of the energy and the activity of the radiation source, the geometrical arrangement, the thickness of the wall and the wall material have been investigated.
The principles of selective separations by recrystallization are explained and formulae for the calculation of decontamination
factors are presented. Experiments with strontium sulfate and radioactive strontium ions demonstrate the validity of the theoretical
considerations. Similar or higher decontamination factors are found than those calculated for a uniform distribution of the
radioactive strontium ions between crystals and solution. The high values are explained by assuming a recrystallization mechanism
which consists of dissolution and redeposition of crystal layers. The half-times of recrystallization increase sharply with
Sr2+ or SO
concentration in the solution. In nitric acid solutions as well as in mixtures containing nitrates and nitric acid the solubility
of strontium sulfate is rather high, accordingly the decontamination factors are low under these conditions and furthermore
the recrystallization half-times are long.
The radionuclide purity of medical (99mTc) and technical (60Co,109Cd) products was determined by γ-spectrometry. The impurities found allowed in all cases to draw conclusions on the method
of production. The importance of radionuclide purity control is demonstrated.
The determination of α- and pure β-emitting impurities in99Mo/99mTc generator eluates before application is discussed. It is shown that α-emitters in ≥10 mCi eluates can be determined in
a proportional counter or an α-spectrometer within 30 min with detection limits lower than the European Pharmacopoeia limit
(10−7% of the main activity).89Sr and90Sr are determined after chemical separation, consisting of ion exchange to separate the main activity (TcO
), shaking with charcoal to separate colloidal particles containing Mo and precipitation of Sr as oxalate or sulfate. The
precipitate is measured in a low-level counter. For eluates with an activity of ≥10 mCi the detection limits are one order
of magnitude lower than the activity limit given by the European Pharmacopoeia for90Sr (6×10−6% of the main activity). The time needed for chemical separation and activity measurement is about 30 min.