Authors:X. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Tan, K. Han, and L. Sun
The isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from traditional Chinese drugs of Phellodendri Cortex, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae,
Corydalis Yanhusuo and Corydalis Bungeana. The power-time curves of growth of E. coli at different concentrations of isoquinoline alkaloid at 37�C were determined by a 2277 Thermal Activity Monitor. The rate
constant of bacteriostastic activity was calculated. The relationship between growth rate constant and concentration was established.
The optimum bacteriostastic concentration was determined. Experimental results have indicated that all the isoquinoline alkaloids
isolated from the four kinds of traditional Chinese drugs have bacteriostastic activity and the order is Phellodendri Cortex>Radix
Stephaniae Tetrandrae>Corydalis Yanhusuo>Corydalis Bungeana.
A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analyzer with a special structure is described. Its short X-ray path (about 15 cm) resulted in a high sensitivity, low power consumption and small volume. The structure with double total reflection path is suitable for easy change of exciting source to cover a large element range. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of 6 pg for Co under Cu exciting source and 22 pg for Sr under Mo tube. Some significant works were done, such as the detemination of sulfur content in fuel oils, the non-destructive analysis of an ancient bronze utensil and the regular analysis of tap water.
Authors:J. Carpenter, D. Katayama, L. Liu, W. Chonkaew, and K. Menard
The glass transition of lyophilized materials is normally measured by conventional or temperature modulated differential scanning
calorimetry (TMDSC). However, because of the weakness of these transitions when protein concentrations are high, these techniques
are often unable to detect the glass transition (Tg). High ramp rate DSC, where heating rates of 100 K per min and higher are used, has been shown to be able to detect weak
transitions in a wide range of materials and has been applied to these materials in previous work. Dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA) is also known to be much more sensitive to the presence of relaxations in materials than other commonly used thermal
techniques. The development of a method to handle powders in the DMA makes it now possible to apply this technique to protein
and protein-excipient mixtures. HRR DSC, TMA and DMA were used to characterize the glass transition of lyophilized materials
and the results correlated. DMA is shown to be a viable alternative to HRR DSC and TMA for lyophilized materials.
Authors:C. Chai, S. Ma, X. Mao, K. Liao, and W. Liu
Two different radiochemical procedures were developed: chelate ion resin exchange and amine solvent extraction. Two kinds of new Chinese chelate resins (NANKAI-3926 and BEI-5) and a new longchain primary amine N1923 were compared with the Srafion NMRR and the tertiary amine N235 in absorption performance of noble metals, respectively. Influences of various experimental conditions, e. g. sample digestion, acidity, equilibrium time, as well as elution of noble metals, on analytical sensitivity and chemical yield were discussed. Combining with neutron activation, the radiochemical separation procedures developed were used to determine the noble metal contents in the geological samples from Permian/Triassic boundary in South China.
Authors:K. Tung, J. Liu, F. Cheng, C. Yang, W. Tu, K. Wang, C. Shyu, C. Lai, C. Chou, and W. Lee
is one of the
species most commonly found in the wild field, which can cause severe infection and mortality in young sparrows. In this study, we selected
(Chung Hsing strain) as a pathogen to orally inoculate russet sparrows (
), spotted munia (
), canary (
), Java sparrows (
), chicken (
), ducks (
) and BALB/c mice. The results indicated that
infected only russet sparrows. Infected sparrows displayed lethargy, muscular weakness and fluffy feathers, followed by rapid death. Liver and spleen enlargement was seen in the infected birds. Schizonts were identified in thin smears from the venous blood, enlarged livers and spleens. Histopathological examination revealed schizonts and merozoites from the liver and spleen of infected russet sparrows, but not from other species experimentally inoculated with
in the present study.
Authors:L. Tian, N. Ren, J. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Sun, H. Ye, and K. Wu
The two complexes of [Ln(CA)3bipy]2 (Ln = Tb and Dy; CA = cinnamate; bipy = 2,2′-bipyridine) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared
spectra, ultraviolet spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry techniques. The thermal decomposition behaviors
of the two complexes under a static air atmosphere can be discussed by thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry
and infrared spectra techniques. The non-isothermal kinetics was investigated by using a double equal-double steps method,
the nonlinear integral isoconversional method and the Starink method. The mechanism functions of the first decomposition step
of the two complexes were determined. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH≠, ΔG≠ and ΔS≠) and kinetic parameters (activation energy E and the pre-exponential factor A) of the two complexes were also calculated.
Authors:Yuan-Fang Liu, Cheng Luo, K. Moody, D. Lee, G. Seaborg, and H. Von Gunten
Two procedures are described for fast separations of berkelium from complex mixtures of reaction products arising from heavy
ion reactions, such as18O+248Cm. The first procedure uses a combination of several extraction steps with a final separation on a cation exchanger, the
second procedure starts with an anion exchange column which is followed by multiple extractions in different media. The elements
separated in the different steps were analyzed and overall decontamination factors are given.
Authors:B.W. Campbell, Y. Liu, K. Wise, Y. Jin, and H.W. Ohm
Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most destructive cereal diseases globally. Concern about the disease has increased since 1999 with the discovery in Uganda of a new virulent race of Pgt, designated as race TTKSK (also known as Ug99). The objectives of this experiment were to characterize the resistance and to determine the chromosomal location of the stem rust resistance in the spring wheat line PI 410966. A mapping population was developed from a cross between PI 410966 and a susceptible wheat line OK3040. An inoculation test with isolate 04KEN156/04 of race TTKSK was conducted at the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory in the F6:7 generation, and the F6:7 phenotypic data were used to genetically map the resistance gene to the centromeric region on chromosome 2BS. The single locus explained the observed F6:7 resistant and susceptible scores. The location of the gene and molecular marker banding profiles of the diagnostic markers suggest that the stem rust resistance gene in PI 410966 could be a new gene, an allele of Sr36, or Sr36.
Authors:K. Shang, Y. Yang, J. Guo, W. Lu, F. Liu, and W. Wang
The extraction of cobalt by Winsor II microemulsion system was studied. In the bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt
(AOT)/n-pentanol/n-heptane/NaCl system, AOT was used as a anionic surfactant to form microemulsion in n-heptane, n-pentanol was injected in the microemulsion as a cosurfactant. Co(II) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase
due to ion pair formation such as Co2+(R–SO3−)Cl. The influence of different parameters such as the volume ratio of aqueous phase to microemulsion, surfactant concentration,
pH of the feed solutions, cosurfactant concentration as well as temperature on the extraction yield (E%) were investigated. The results showed that it was possible to extract 95% of cobalt by the AOT Winsor II microemulsion.
Authors:K. Zinn, J. Morris, Ch. Fairfax, R. Berliner, Hungyuan Liu, and R. Brugger
A rectilinear scanner has been constructed which incorporates high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. This scanner was built to simultaneously image the distributions of multiple gamma-emitting radionuclides in small animals, such as rabbits and rats. The instrument design is described, followed by studies of the Ge(Li) detector response and calibration tests of a single straight-hole collimator. Based on these results, two new collimators were designed and constructed; (1) a six tapered-hole focusing collimator and (2) a nine straight-hole focusing collimator. These new collimators are advantageous because they offer an increased efficiency of gamma-ray detection during scanning. They also give better image resolution in the differentiation of two points (or organs) on a plane. The results of the calibration tests and comparisons of the resolution and efficiency among collimators are illustrated and discussed.