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  • Author or Editor: K. Magyar x
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Five soil P-test methods were compared on the soils of the network of unified Hungarian P fertilization long-term field trials. The effect of P application on the soil P-test values was significant on the different P levels and sites. The average effect of the sites varied between 1.5-fold (H 2 O method) and 3.7- fold (AL-method). The amounts of extracted P increased in the order of H 2 O-P < Olsen-P < Pi-P < AERM-P < AL-P < Corrected AL-P. For studying the relationships between the P values extracted by the different methods, acidic, calcareous and all soils groups were taken into account as a basis. A good correlation was found between the Pi- and AERM-methods in each soil group. Within the acidic soil group, pH has a much less expressed effect on AL-P values, presumably this was the reason why the strongest correlation in this soil group was found between the AL- and the Corr. AL-P methods  The next step in our research will be to calibrate these soil-P tests with plant P uptake and yield responses.

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The effects of a new type of aromatic cytokinin, meta-topolin, on the morphology and histology of apple leaves and its post-effects on the subsequent shoot regeneration from in vitro leaves were studied in cv. Royal Gala. The media applied for pre-treatment differed from each other in their cytokinin composition: medium No. 1 contained no cytokinin, No. 2 was supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 benzyladenine, while Nos. 3-6 contained meta-topolin, the new type of cytokinin, in four concentrations (0.5-1.0-1.5-2.0 mg l-1). After a 3-week pre-treatment on these media shoot regeneration was induced on two test regeneration media containing thidiazuron (0.2 mg l-1) or benzyladenine (5.0 mg l-1). Irrespective of the pre-treatments, high regeneration (97-100%) was observed on all the regeneration media. however, the conditioning of apple shoots for three weeks on medium supplemented with meta-topolin in a concentration range between 0.5 and 1.5 mg l-1 caused a significant decrease in the rate of vitrified shoots (down to 13.4%) and increased the number of regenerated shoots per leaf segment significantly (up to 15.1). There was a positive correlation between the histological status and regeneration capacity of in vitro leaves. According to these results, meta-topolin, as a new source of cytokinin, could increase the morphogenic potential of apple leaves.

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The in vitro shoot multiplication of apple cv. Jonagold was tested on media containing benzyladenine, benzyladenine riboside or meta-topolin in different concentrations (from 0.0 to 5.0 mg l-1). The optimal concentration for the best multiplication varied according to the type of cytokinin. The highest multiplication rate (on average 6.9 and 5.9 new shoots per explant) was achieved using 5.0 mg l-1 meta-topolin or 2.0 mg l-1 benzyladenine riboside. The longest shoots were formed on media containing benzyladenine riboside at a concentration of 0.5 mg l-1. The length of newly developed shoots was strongly suppressed by high concentrations of different cytokinins, but the suppression effect of a high concentration of meta-topolin on shoot length was less than that of benzyladenine or benzyladenine riboside. In this study meta-topolin and benzyladenine riboside proved to be effective cytokinins to induce adequate shoot proliferation, while benzyladenine was the least active cytokinin

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(Influence of fertilisation and grassland management on the development of herbs on permanent grassland.) — This investigation was carried out (HBLFA Raumberg-Gumpenstein) with differently kind of fertilisation and cutting regimes on permanent meadows. This paper focuses on influence of grassland management on plant composition with special regard to herbs. Extensive management leads to an increase in herbs. The main reason is an open sward, leading to many gaps. Fodder quality is medium in these species-poor stands. Intensive management practices leads to an increases in the proportion of grasses and several herbs which are adapted to increased management intensity. Fodder quality increases, except of a high degree of coverage by Poa trivialis . Highest plant species richness is related to moderately management practice. Species richness will decreases both extensive and intensive management in a long-term.

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Authors: K. Tandori, I. Vincze, L. Tamássy, M. Szendrei and Z. Magyar

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Authors: L. Veress, Zs. Tasi, T. Pécsi, S. Babik, Irén Horváth and K. Magyar

In a Prolific Merino nucleus herd of 200 ewes the ovulation rate (OR) test results obtained in 169 animals between 1988 and 1993 were compared with those of 113 ewes from the same herd in 1996. Whereas earlier the ratio of individuals showing an OR ≥ 4 was only 32%, that of the group checked in 1996 was 59%. This increase could be attributed to 40 ewes, both of whose parents had proven to be homozygous carriers of the prolific gene. To develop the Prolific Merino breed, 21 Booroola Merino rams were imported from New Zealand, and mostly their frozen semen was used. Of these rams, one was not a prolific gene carrier, 8 were homozygous carriers, 10 were heterozygous carriers and two had not been identified yet. Of the 36 home-bred rams, 9 proved to be homozygous by parents, 11 heterozygous, 8 homozygous, one proved to be a non-carrier, and 7 rams and their frozen semen were to be progeny tested. Six thousand doses of frozen semen from a total of 33 animals (16 imported rams and their 17 home-bred offspring) are stored in plastic straws. Sixty-three % of this is semen reserve from rams of the FecBFecBgenotype, belonging to 10 ram lines. The remaining 37% is gene reserve intended for creating homozygous ram lines. Only one ram (no. 3244) was bought for the nucleus herd, the other ram lines were introduced into the herd by assortative mating, using intrauterine insemination. The average conception rate found after 472 intrauterine inseminations was 53% with large (occasionally 10-100%) individual ram differences.

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Authors: M. Tóth-Markus, I. Magyar, K. Kardos, L. Bánszky and A. Maráz

In this study the role of different yeast strains in the production of volatile flavour components of Tokaji Aszú wine was tested. The effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter and that of the typical endogenous Candida stellata strain as well as spontaneous fermentation were studied and compared. For the fast comparison of aroma profile, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling and a GC-MS separation and identification were used. Thirty of the present compounds were selected to characterise the changes of flavour. Significant differences were found between wines fermented with different yeast strains. Application of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter alone accelerated the fermentation but this caused only little change in the aroma profile and content. Candida stellata contributed weakly to the production of aroma, especially to that of the longer carbon chain ethyl esters. Characteristic compounds of aged wine were detected in bottle aged Tokaji Aszú. The change of aroma profile as a function of bottle storage time was studied. The concentrations of vitispirane, trimethyl dihydronaphtalene, 2-phenylethanol and diethyl succinate increased in the course of ageing time, while those of 3-methyl-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and ethyl dodecanoate decreased.

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Authors: K Galamb, B Szilágyi, OM Magyar, T Hortobágyi, R Nagatomi, M Váczi and J Négyesi

Aims

Right- and left-side-dominant individuals reveal target-matching asymmetries between joints of the dominant and non-dominant upper limbs. However, it is unclear if such asymmetries are also present in lower limb’s joints. We hypothesized that right-side-dominant participants perform knee joint target-matching tasks more accurately with their non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants.

Methods

Participants performed position sense tasks using each leg by moving each limb separately and passively on an isokinetic dynamometer.

Results

Side-dominance affected (p < 0.05) knee joint absolute position errors only in the non-dominant leg but not in the dominant leg: right-side-dominant participants produced less absolute position errors (2.82° ± 0.72°) with the non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant young participants (3.54° ± 0.33°).

Conclusions

In conclusion, right-side-dominant participants tend to perform a target-matching task more accurately with the non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants. Our results extend the literature by showing that right-hemisphere specialization under proprioceptive target-matching tasks may be not evident at the lower limb joints.

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Authors: K. Végh, E. Osztoics, P. Csathó, J. Csillag, L. Radimszky, G. Baczó, M. Magyar, T. Takács, A. Lukács and M. Karátsonyi
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Authors: N Magyari, V Szakács, C Bartha, B Szilágyi, K Galamb, MO Magyar, T Hortobágyi, RM Kiss, J Tihanyi and J Négyesi

Aims

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters.

Methods

Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line.

Results

Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender.

Conclusion

There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.

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