The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to the analysis of environmental materials, such as urban particulate matter, vehicle exhaust particulates and coal fly ash by photon activation. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry makes possible to use multi-internal standard gamma-rays, in order to crosscheck the analytical results obtained from each internal standard. It was ascertained that this method can provide not only accurate analytical results but also the information of homogeneity of samples, correlation of elements in the sample, loss or contamination in the preparation process.
In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determination of several selected elements, such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel has been examined by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the above determination, constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements can be determined accurately and precisely.
In order to achieve the highly accurate and precise multielement determination in environmental materials, the usefulness of the comparative standard provided by the processing method proposed previously for soil samples has been re-examined using calcareous loam soil, light sandy soil and river sediment as unknown samples. As a result, it was also demonstrated that concentrations of 15 trace elements in each sample can be determined effectively and reasonably.
Multielement determinations in the certified reference materials of soils (IAEA soil-5 and 7) have been studied fundamentally by instrumental photon activation analysis using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. For the soil-5 sample, in the first place, the qualities of the comparative standards prepared by two processing methods were compared with each other. As a result, it was demonstrated that a highly accurate and precise multielement determination can be achieved easily by minor improvement in the processing method of the comparative standard to ensure homogeneity. The utility of this processing method for soil samples was proved further through a similar analysis in another soil sample (IAEA soil-7).
In order to examine effective applications of the newly developed internal standard method, determinations of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ce and Pb in three environmental materials, such as pond, lake and estuarine sediments, have been tried by means of photon activation. In these examinations, some major constituent elements in the above sediments were properly used as excellent and effective internal standards. In consequence, it was confirmed that highly accurate and precise determinations of the above 13 elements were achieved easily and favourably.
Multielement determinations of coal fly ashes (NIST SRM-1633a and BCR CRM-38) have been carried out by instrumental photon activation analysis using 30 MeV bremsstrahlung and the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of 18 elements were determined accurately and precisely. Furthermore, a similar multielement determination has also been examined using 20 MeV bremsstrahlung. In this case, it was proved that better results can be achieved, because all interfering reactions were eliminated completely.
In order to study further the applicability of the newly developed stable isotope dilution method, simultaneous determination of Ca, Rb, Sr and Ce in three kinds of environmental materials has been tried by means of photon activation using isotopically enriched48Ca,87Rb,86Sr and142Ce as spikes. All determinations were demonstrated to be sensitive, highly specific and reasonably accurate.
The combined use of photon activation and γ-γ coincidence spectrometry is described for the useful and selective nondestructive
determination of nickel in geological materials. This method is characterized by the utilization of the nuclide emitting β+ particles in its decay and γ-γ coincidence counting with two gates: one for the annihilation photopeak region and the other
for the higher Compton plateau region. The practical detection limits by this method for nickel, arsenic, rubidium, sodium
and scandium in silicate matrices could be set at 2.0, 1.2, 9.0, 110 and 1.4 μg, respectively.
In order to study effective applications of the photon activation analysis using the internal standard method, determinations of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Pb in two marine sediments as environmental materials have been examined by the use of a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards to check the roles with each other. As a result, it was demonstrated that accurate and precise determinations of the above 15 elements were achieved efficiently and favourably.
In order to demonstrate the usefulness of alpha-particle activation analysis, simultaneous determination of P, Cl, K and Ca in commercially available control serums has been studied fundamentally. After thick target yield curves of radionuclides produced from the element to be determined were measured as a function of alpha energy together with those of the interferences, an optimum working standard for the present experiments was provided by applying the internal standard method to a human serum under the most suitable bombardment conditions. Then, the concentrations of the above four elements in several control serums were determined efficiently and reasonably by ordinary alpha-particle activation analysis.