Metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) were found in the gut of some gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) specimens from a Hungarian water reservoir. Location of metacestodes in the freshly opened gut was marked with disseminated, red-coloured, pinhead-sized nodules in the anterior part of the intestine. In histological sections, metacestodes were found in a hole inside the propria layer of the intestinal folds. The worms were in direct contact with the host tissue without being encapsulated as a result of host reaction. In some specimens with extruded rostellum the rostellar hooks were bored into the host tissue and suckers grabbed pieces of the surrounding connective tissue. Around the worms, congested capillaries and formation of macrophages were seen in the lysed connective tissue.
Thelohanellus nikolskii infection of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) has been a common parasitosis in the Central European fish farms since the first detection of the parasite about 20 years ago. This parasite, introduced from the Far East, causes intensive infection on the fins of fingerlings of the carp subspecies cultured in Europe (European carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio). This infection of the common carp occurs in the Hungarian fish farms every year. Until the present study, this parasite had not been recorded from the fins of koi or coloured carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), a carp of Far Eastern origin, which is cultured in Hungary as an ornamental fish. A recent survey conducted in common carp, koi and goldfish stocks demonstrated that T. nikolskii infection of low prevalence and intensity occurs also in koi populations, but its prevalence and intensity are markedly lower than in common carp kept in the same ponds. It is suggested that the observed differences are due to disparities in the susceptibility of the two carp subspecies to T. nikolskii, and that the koi is less susceptible to this infection. Other signs of susceptibility can also be observed in the European subspecies, since in 15% of the fish plasmodium development was arrested at an early stage. Thelohanellus nikolskii infection could not be demonstrated on goldfish (Carassius auratus).
In this study, nine anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry were tested for efficacy for the prevention and treatment of
(Apicomplexa) infection in common carp (
L.). To establish experimental infection with
, paratenic host oligochaetes of the genera
were infected with oocysts, and laboratory-cultured parasite-free common carp fingerlings were infected by feeding to them oligochaetes containing sporozoites. The anticoccidial drugs (amprolium, narasin, maduramicin, salinomycin Na, lasalocid Na, diclazuril, robenidine HCl, monensin Na and toltrazuril), mixed in the food of the fish in a dose of 200 mg/kg, were fed for 12 days. Common carp fingerlings fed diclazuril, lasalocid, robenidine HCl or maduramicin and killed on day 14 after exposure were free from infection, while other groups treated with amprolium, toltrazuril, monensin Na, narasin or salinomycin Na harboured oocysts in the mucus and epithelium of the gut.
Sinergasilus lieni Yin, 1949, a well-known and pathogenic parasitic copepod in China and Russia, has been detected in Hungarian carp farms for the first time. The parasite infected the third-year generation of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (Aristichthys nobilis). The gills of the infected fish specimens showed severe pathological changes. At the attachment sites of female copepods clubbing and fusing of the gill filaments were observed and in some parts of the pale or whitish hemibranchia deep indentations were recorded in places where the tips of the damaged filaments had broken off. Silver carp and bighead were infected at a similar rate, having 8 to 27 copepods attached to the end of the clubbed filaments or the proliferated epithelium of 2 to 10 fused filaments. In histological sections the head part of the parasite was found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium, piercing its antennae deep into the tissues. Only the end of the filaments showed changes. In this part the proliferated epithelium was infiltrated by eosinophilic granular cells. In the central and basal parts of the hemibranchia the original structure of the filaments was preserved with intact secondary lamellae.
Myxobolus hungaricusJaczó, 1940 forms relatively large plasmodia on the gills of bream (Abramis brama). The authors give a redescription of this deficiently described parasite on the basis of spores collected from the original habitat, which spores are indicated as a neotype. The plasmodia of the parasite can be found on the gills typically in the spring months, and are located in the central part of the gill filaments. They start to develop in the lumen of capillaries of the secondary lamellae and remain in intralamellar location also after they have reached the mature stage. The spores have a very characteristic shape, as on the surface of the spore valves a distinctly emerging ridge runs parallel to the sutural line. In addition to breams from the typical habitat, Lake Balaton, the plasmodia ofM. hungaricuscould be detected also on breams originating from the river Danube.
During a five-year survey including studies on the parasite fauna of bream (Abramis brama), four gill-parasitic Myxobolus species (M. bramae, M. hungaricus, M. impressus and M. macrocapsularis) were recorded in a total of 313 breams from Lake Balaton. The commonest species, M. bramae showed a prevalence of 33%, while the other species occurred sporadically. Myxobolus bramae and M. macrocapsularis infected the tips of the gill filaments and caused both intralamellar and interlamellar infection. Intralamellar plasmodia of small size developed in the capillary network of the gill lamellae whereas the much larger interlamellar plasmodia were formed in the arteria afferens. The intralamellar plasmodia of M. hungaricus always infected the basal or central part of the gill filaments. In contrast to the above species developing in the blood vessels, M. impressus proved to be an epithelial parasite, as its plasmodia always developed in the adjacent gill filaments of two opposite haemibranchia, in the stratified epithelium between the respiratory plates, causing changes of the haemibranchium which were well visible even by the naked eye.
In a three-year survey of myxosporean infections of the bleak (Alburnus alburnus), involving the examination of 205 fish specimens from the River Danube and 50 from Lake Balaton, four Myxobolus species (two gill parasites, one fin parasite and a species parasitising the skeletal muscles) were detected. Two of the species could be identified as M. alburni and M. obesus. Of the other two species, the gill parasite proved to be a hitherto undescribed species which is described here as a new species by the name of M. margitae. One of the two gillparasitic species, M. obesus, formed plasmodia in the respiratory lamellae of the gill filaments, while the plasmodia of M. margitae n. sp. were formed in the afferent artery of the primary gill filaments. The plasmodia containing spores morphologically identifiable with the species M. alburni were located in the connective tissue between the fin rays. The less frequently found muscle-parasitic Myxobolus species has not been identified precisely. The plasmodia of M. obesus were found in the fish in May and June, while those of M. alburni and M. margitae n. sp. in July and August. The prevalence of infection in fish examined in these periods was 15.5% for M. obesus, 11.5% for M. margitae and 14.0% for M. alburni.
For air pollution lichen mapping of Komárom (NW Hungary) 50 liches taxa were collected at 84 sites between October 1997 and April 1999. Except for 3 species (Caloplaca decipiens, Evernia prunastasi, Physca tenella) all are new for investigated area, as it was lichenologically poorly known before. The occurrence of the most frequent species (Amandinea punctata, Lecanora hagenii, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens, P. tenella, Xanthoria perietina) correlates with the dominating dust pollution. Two different zones can be distinguished on the basis of the lichen flora. These are situated in the highly built-upo central and in the surrounding areas.
The actinospore consumption of copepods (Cyclopsspp.)was demonstrated by laboratory observations. It was observed that in experimental dishes the number of actinospores floating in the water decreased, or such actinospores were completely eliminated, in the presence of copepods. The ingestion of actinospores by copepods and their further fate were monitored by fluorescent staining and by conventional histological techniques. The actinospores were observed to have got caught on the filters of Cyclopsspp. Two and a half hours after the copepods had been placed into water containing actinospores, their digestive tract was found to contain spores that had extruded their filaments from the polar capsules. After copepods having ingested the actinospores of the species Myxobolus pseudodisparhad been fed to roaches, no muscle infection developed in the fish host. It is likely that Cyclopsspp. can filter out actinospores floating in the water also from natural waters, thus decreasing the chance of development of myxosporean infections.
The aim of the present study was to test the efficiency of gamma irradiation in inducing translocations between wheat and barley genomes using addition lines. The Martonvásári 9 kr1-Igri disomic addition set, previously produced in Martonvásár, was irradiated with gamma rays. The pattern of irradiation-induced intergenomic chromosome rearrangements was analysed in the mutagenized (M0) generation by genomic
hybridization (GISH). Centric fusions and a wide variety of reciprocal, terminal and interstitial translocations were frequently induced. The intergeneric translocations produced here are expected to be stabilized in later backcross progenies as a set of introgression lines carrying few but distinct rearrangements.