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An expression is developed for the variation of the critical solution temperature of a binary liquid system when a third component (dopant) is added, using an extension of the regular solution theory. The model can be used for UCST, LCST and for closed loop systems and has the correct features in the limiting cases.

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Tannase an industrially important enzyme was produced by Aspergillus aculeatus DBF9 through a solid-state fermentation (SSF). The organism produced good amount of enzyme and gallic acid in wheat bran among the solid substrate used in SSF. Maximum enzyme and gallic acid production occurred in 5% tannic acid after 72 h. Eighty percent initial substrate moisture and 30 °C temperature was found suitable for tannase production.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Nath, S. Mondal, A. Csighy, M.A. Molnár, K. Pásztorné-Huszár, Z. Kovács, A. Koris, and Gy. Vatai

In the dairy industry different types of prebiotics, such galacto-oligosaccharide, lactulose, lactosucrose, tagatose, lactitol, lactobiono- and glucono-δ-lactone are synthesized through different chemical and biochemical reactions (hydrolysis, transgalactosylation, isomerization, fructosyl-transfer, reduction, and oxidation) as well as microbial fermentation processes using raw whey or isolated lactose as feedstock. Lactose-derived prebiotics have several functional and nutritional values. The biochemical activities of lactose-based prebiotics are expressed in the presence of probiotics (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, Bacillus spp.). Galacto-oligosaccharide and lactosucrose reduce the risk of bowel disorder (diarrhea), inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and crohn’s disease), and colon cancer. Galacto-oligosaccharide helps colonic absorption of minerals (iron, magnesium and calcium) and prevents osteoporosis. Lactulose, galacto-oligosaccharide, and lactitol promote laxative activity. Furthermore, lactulose may decrease the risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Prebiotics have low calorific value and glycemic index. Galacto-oligosaccharide and tagatose reduce the risks of hyperglycemia (Type 2 diabetes) and low density lipid (lipoprotein) accumulation in blood stream. Moreover, prebiotics improve immunomodulation, which reduces the risk of respiratory infection and allergies. This review describes unique biochemical mechanisms of several types of lactose-derived prebiotics.

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