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Liver transplantation (LT) is the sole treatment modality of most of diffuse liver diseases. Simultaneous-pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is also a life saving operation for IDDM patients. Both procedures are established treatment options in the European Community (EC) and in the US. These procedures are performed in a significantly smaller number in Hungary. Having a larger demand for LT than the supply of cadaver donors alternative solutions are sought to increase the number of transplantable livers. In Hungary partly the shortage of donors and the shortage of recipients are the factors rendering the number of LTs and SPKs low. These factors can be changed by better organisation and good survival data that make the two procedures accepted by the community of physicians.

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Ultrastructural characteristics of muscle fibers and neuromuscular contacts were investigated during two stages of embryogenesis of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The first muscle cells appear as early as during metamorphosis (50–55% of embryonic development), whereas previously, in the trochophore/veliger stages (25–45%), muscular elements cannot be detected at all. The first muscle fibers contain large amounts of free numbers, a well-developed rER system and only a few irregularly arranged contractile elements. The nucleus is densely packed with heterochromatine material. At 75% adult-like postmetamorphic stage, the frequency of muscle fibers increases significantly, but, bundles of muscle fibers cannot yet be observed. Furthermore the muscle cells are characterized by large numbers of free ribosomes and numerous rER elements. Fine axon bundles and single axon processes, both accompanied by glial elements, can already be found at this time. Axon varicosities with different vesicle and/or granule contents form membrane contacts with muscle fibers, but without revealing membrane specialization on the pre- or postsynaptic side. The late development of the muscle system and neuromuscular contacts during Lymnaea embryogenesis correlates well with the maturation of different forms of behavior of adult, free-living life, and also with the peripheral appearance of chemically identified components of the embryonic nervous system of central origin.

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The physiognomy and the species composition of the Salici cinereae-Sphagnetum recurvi (Zólyomi 1931) Soó 1954 are variable in Hungary. This association has been divided into two new subassociations by the authors, due to the slight differences in their moss layer. As a representation they compared 27 phytocoenological relevés, made by 4 different botanists in 10 different mires, by multivariate analysis. Those peat moss dominated willow carrs, in which the dominant moss species are Sphagnum squarrosum and/or Sphagnum fimbriatum subsp. fimbriatum, are called Salici cinereae-Sphagnetum recurvi sphagnetosum squarrosi subass. nov., on the contrary those, in which any species of the Sphagnum recurvum agg. (S. fallax, S. angustifolium, S. flexuosum) and/or Sphagnum palustre are dominant, are called Salici cinereae-Sphagnetum recurvi sphagnetosum recurvi subass. nov. The two submitted subassociations of peat moss dominated grey willow carr are very similar. They could be found together or independently, on a terrestrial or on a floating mire. All of them are a part of the successional series of mire development, which can result a continental raised bog under recent climate, too.

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Prematurity has got special challenge for clinicians and also other medical staff, such as microbiologists. Immature host defense mechanisms support early-onset sepsis, which can be very serious with very high mortality. While the past decade has been marked by a significant decline in early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis in both term and preterm neonates, the overall incidence of early-onset sepsis has not decreased in many centers, and several studies have found an increase in sepsis due to gram-negative organisms. With increasing survival of these more fastidious preterm infants, late-onset sepsis or specially nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) will continue to be a challenging complication that affects other morbidities, length of hospitalization, cost of care, and mortality rates. Especially the very low birthweight (VLBW) infants sensitive to serious systemic infection during their initial hospital stay. Sepsis caused by multiresistant organisms and Candida spp. are also increasing in incidence, has become the most common cause of death among preterm infants. This review focuses on the clinical microbiology of neonatal sepsis, particularly among preterm babies, summarizing the most frequent bacterial and fungal organisms causing perinatally acquired and also nosocomial sepsis.

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Abstract  

Iron(III) complexes of D-saccharose and D-glucose were prepared. The compositions of the complexes were determined by standard analytical methods. The Mössbauer spectra reflected the presence of high-spin iron(III) in the polynuclear species. EPR spectroscopy demonstrated antiferromagnetically coupled iron(III) centers within the solid complexes. The13C NMR spectra indicated the presence of a mixture of coordination isomers of iron(III) complexes containing the sugar ligand in differently bound forms.

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Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects.

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Mutations in the HIV-1 genes associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs were detected also in primary HIV infected individuals who did not receive antiretroviral treatment. Drug resistance genotyping of HIV pol gene was done by in situ DNA hybridization using a Line Probe Assay and by direct sequencing. Viral variants harbouring resistance mutations such as: M41, T69R, K70R, M184V, T215Y in the pol gene were detected in 14% of the subjects. HIV mutants resistant to NRT inhibitors were found in 10 and 20% of patients infected before and after the year 2000, respectively. Multiple drug resistant viruses (2–3 drug classes) were present in 3.5% of the mainly recently infected patients. In protease gene only minor resistant mutations were found such as L10I and A71V.These findings indicate the evolution of drug resistance showing a correlation with the time of introduction of combination therapy in our country, where more than 70% of HIV infections were by homo/bisexual transmission.This confirms the transmission of drug-resistant HIV shown by genotype testing during primary infection in therapy-naive patients and initiates serious clinical and public health consequences.

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Asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy individuals has a high prevalence, especially in children and young adults. Nasal colonisation is a well-known risk factor for subsequent severe infection, or can be the source of transmission of this bacterium to other susceptible persons. In this study, we have surveyed the nasal carriage rate of students of the Semmelweis University, by screening 300 volunteers. We have determined the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates by Etest, and their genetic relatedness by pulsed-fieled gel electrophoresis. The nasal carriage rate of S. aureus was found to be 29.3%, and that of MRSA only 0.67% (2/300). The isolates were generally sensitive to antibiotics, except for macrolides. We could observe a noticeably great genetic diversity, even among strains deriving from students of the same university group.

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