Authors:O. Farmer, K. Olsen, M. Thomas, and S. Garofoli
A method for the separation and determination of total and isotopic uranium and plutonium by ICP/MS was developed for IAEA
samples on cellulose-based media. Preparation of the IAEA samples involved a series of redox chemistries and separations using
TRU® resin (Eichrom). The sample introduction system, an APEX nebulizer (Elemental Scientific, Inc.), provided enhanced nebulization
for a several-fold increase in sensitivity and reduction in background. Application of mass bias (ALPHA) correction factors
greatly improved the precision of the data. By combining the enhancements of chemical separation, instrumentation and data
processing, detection levels for uranium and plutonium approached high attogram levels.
Authors:M. Liezers, S. Lehn, K. Olsen, O. Farmer, and Douglas Duckworth
Electrochemically modulated separations (EMS) are shown to be a rapid and selective means of extracting and concentrating
Pu from complex solutions prior to isotopic analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP‐MS). This separation
is performed in a flow injection mode, on‐line with the ICP‐MS. A three‐electrode, flow‐by electrochemical cell is used to
accumulate Pu at an anodized glassy carbon electrode by redox conversion of Pu(III) to Pu (IV&VI). The entire process takes
place in 2% (v/v) (0.46 M) HNO3. No redox chemicals or acid concentration changes are required. Plutonium accumulation and release is redox dependent and
controlled by the applied cell potential. Large transient volumetric concentration enhancements can be achieved. Based on
more negative U(IV) potentials relative to Pu(IV), separation of Pu from uranium is efficient, thereby eliminating uranium
hydride interferences. EMS‐ICP‐MS isotope ratio measurement performance will be presented for femtogram to attogram level
plutonium isotope injections.
Authors:Z. Pieniak, W. Verbeke, K. Brunsø, J. Scholderer, and S. Olsen
The objective of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes and behavioural patterns related to fish consumption in Poland and four Western European countries (Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Spain). A quantitative cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out and a total sample of 4786 respondents, representative within each country for age and region (n=800–1100 respondents per country) was obtained. Although Polish consumers have the most positive general attitudes toward fish and the strongest belief that eating fish is healthy and safe, their intention and fish consumption is on a very low level compared to the Western European countries.
Authors:P. Dresel, K. Olsen, J. Hayes, J. McIntyre, S. Waichler, and B. Kennedy
Characterization of transuranic waste is needed for decisions about waste site remediation. Soil-gas sampling for xenon isotopes
can be used to define the locations of spent fuel and transuranic waste. Radioxenon in the subsurface is characteristic of
transuranic waste and can be measured with extreme sensitivity using large-volume soil-gas samples. Measurements at the Hanford
Site showed 133Xe and 135Xe levels indicative of 240Pu spontaneous fission. Stable xenon isotopic ratios from fission are distinct from atmospheric xenon background. Neutron
capture by 135Xe produces an excess of 136Xe in reactor-produced xenon, providing a means of distinguishing spent fuel from separated transuranic material.