The kinetics of the decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) in the presence of rare earth oxides, yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and lanthanum oxide (La2O3) as catalysts have been investigated. The Prout-Tompkins and contracting-cube equations have been found to fit the isothermal thermogravimetry data of catalysed AP decomposition. Gases evolved during catalytic decomposition of AP were analysed by infrared spectroscopy by matrix isolation technique. The mechanism of the catalysed thermal decomposition of AP has also been discussed in terms of an electron transfer process.
Authors:H. M. Patil, D. K. Sawant, D. S. Bhavsar, J. H. Patil, and K. D. Girase
The growth of neodymium tartrate crystals was achieved in silica gel by single diffusion method. Optimum conditions were established for the growth of good quality crystals. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic study indicates the presence of water molecules and tartrate ligands and suggests that tartrate ions are doubly ionised. The thermal behaviour of the material was studied using thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermogravimetric analysis support the suggested chemical formula of the grown crystal to be Nd2(C4H4O6)3·7H2O, and the presence of seven water molecules as water of hydration. It is shown that the material is thermally stable up 45 °C beyond which it decomposes through many stages till the formation of neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) at 995 °C. The decomposition pattern is reported to be typical of a hydrated metal tartrate.
Authors:D. K. Sawant, H. M. Patil, D. S. Bhavsar, J. H. Patil, and K. D. Girase
In this study, calcium cadmium tartrate single crystals were grown in silica gel at ambient temperature. Effects of various parameters like gel pH, gel aging, gel density, and concentration of reactants on the growth of these crystals were studied. Crystals having different morphologies and habits were obtained. Transparent, diamond-like pyramidal-shaped crystals of calcium cadmium tartrate were obtained. Some of the crystals obtained were faint yellowish, with some milky white crystals being attched to them due to fast growth rate; faces are well developed and polished. The grown crystals were characterized by thermoanalytic techniques (TG, DTA, and DTG), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystal system is confirmed to be orthorhombic having lattice parameters a = 7.9411 Å, b = 7.0396 Å, and c = 6.7271 Å as determined by powder XRD analysis. TG, DTA, and DTG analyses show a remarkable thermal stability. The results of these observations are described and discussed.
Fine particle cobalt dopedγ-Fe2O3 and Mn-Zn ferrites have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of N2H5CoxFe1−x(N2H3COO)3.H2O wherex=1–10 atom% and (N2H5)3MnxZn1−xFe2(N2H3COO)9· 3H2O wherex=0.2–0.8, respectively. Formation of these oxide materials has been confirmed by thermogravimetry and X-ray powder diffraction patterns. The fine particle nature of these oxide materials is evident from particle size analysis and surface area measurements.
Authors:K. Chetty, P. Mapara, Rajendra Swarup, and S. Patil
The extraction of U(VI) by mixtures of HTTA and TBP from aqueous thiocyanate medium has been studied. From the data obtained it was observed that the predominant uranium species extracted, causing synergic enhancement in the extraction of U(VI), is UO2(SCN)TTA · 2TBP when benzene and cyclohexane are used as diluents, and that at a very low concentration of TBP the contribution of additional species, viz. UO2(TTA)2 · TBP becomes significant. With chloroform as diluent, however, both of these species are contributing to the synergic enhancement. The extraction of a quaternary uranium species, UO2(SCN)TTA · 2TBP, involving the participation of the aqueous anion is thus established. Equilibrium constants for the various extraction equilibria involved are calculated.
Authors:A. N. Patil, S. A. Nirmal, and A. K. Chavan
Gymnemic acid (GA) is one of the phytoconstituents present in Gymnema sylvestre. Estimation of GA was carried out first time from microencapsulated polyherbal formulation. Microencapsulated polyherbal formulations (F1 and F2) contain various plant extracts; hence, proper resolution of GA peak in high-performance thin-layer liquid chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of F1 and F2 is the problem. Hence, HPTLC analysis method for F1 and F2 is developed and validated for quantitative determination of GA. HPTLC analysis of F1 and F2 was carried out using TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 eluted with chloroform-methanol-water (6.5 mL + 4.5 mL + 1.0 mL), and densitometric analysis was carried out at 580 nm. Complete validation was performed using standard methods. This HPTLC method was found to be reproducible, accurate, and can detect GA at microgram level. The new optimized mobile phase gave good resolution of GA peak for its proper quantification in microencapsulated polyherbal formulation.
With continuing proliferation of human influences on landscapes, there is mounting incentive to undertake quantification of relationships between spatial patterns of human populations and vegetation. In considering such quantification, it is apparent that investigations must be conducted at different scales and in a comparative manner across regions. At the broader scales it becomes necessary to utilize remote sensing of vegetation for comparative studies against map referenced census data. This paper explores such an approach for the urbanized area in the Tokyo vicinity. Vegetation is represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as determined from data acquired by the thematic mapper (TM) sensor of the Landsat satellite. Sparseness of vegetation is analyzed in relation to density of human residence, first by regression analysis involving stratified distance zones and then by the recent echelon approach for characterization of surfaces. Echelons reveal structural organization of surfaces in an objective and explicit manner. The virtual surface determined by census data collected on a grid is shown to have structural correspondence with the surface representing vegetation greenness as reflected in magnitude of NDVI values computed from red and infrared bands of image data.
Authors:V. P. Rane, K. R. Patil, J. N. Sangshetti, R. D. Yeole, and D. B. Shinde
A novel stability-indicating reversed-phase (RP) HPLC method has been developed and validated for quantitative analysis of eplerenone in the bulk drug and in a pharmaceutical dosage form. Use of a 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5-μm particle, C18 column with 55:45 (v/v) 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 7)-acetonitrile as isocratic mobile phase enabled separation of the drug from its degradation products. UV detection was performed at 240 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy (recovery), precision, specificity, and robustness. The linearity of the method was excellent over the range 10–100 μg mL−1 (correlation coefficient 0.999). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.019 and 0.053 μg mL−1, respectively. Recovery of eplerenone from the pharmaceutical dosage form ranged from 100.97 to 101.25%. Eplerenone was subjected to stress conditions (hydrolysis (acid, base), oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation) and the stressed samples were analysed by use of the method. Degradation was observed in acid, base, and 30% H2O2. The drug was stable under the other stress conditions investigated. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak. The forced degradation studies prove the stability indicating power of the method.