Milk was collected over a four-month period from three representative sectors of Puerto Rico. Instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA) performed on the samples showed that the mercury concentration was slightly higher than the safe upper limit
set by the World Health Organisation on food products. INAA for cadmium yielded high values when compared with atomic absorption.
Authors:A. Johnsson, A. Ödegaard-Jensen, G. Skarnemark, and K. Pedersen
Metal species that are dissolved in water can be transported in the environment, because they can be mobile. Microorganisms
can affect metal mobility by excreting organic ligands with high metal affinity. Siderophores are organic ligands with high
affinities for Fe3+. They are also able to form complexes with other metals such as actinides. Many countries plan to deposit spent nuclear fuel
in deep geological repositories. Microorganisms are present in these subterranean environments and could potentially affect
the repository. In this study, the effect of microbial siderophores on the dissolution behavior of two fragments of a spent
nuclear fuel pellet was investigated. The commercial hydroxamate siderophore, deferoxamine mesylate (DFAM), and pyoverdin
siderophores, isolated from cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens (CCUG 32456A), were used. DFAM and lyophilized pyoverdins were dissolved in synthetic groundwater to final concentrations
of 10 μM and 2.5·10−2 g·L−1, respectively. The fuel pellet fragments were kept in sealed pressure vessels at 10 bars of H2. The pyoverdin solution was first tested, followed by the DFAM solution and the pure synthetic groundwater. Samples were
taken on 0, 1, 5, 9 and 14 days after changing the solution in the pressure vessels. The elemental composition of samples
was analyzed by means of ICP-MS. The pyoverdin solution maintained significantly higher concentrations of Np and Pu than the
pure synthetic groundwater. On the 14th day the concentrations of Np and Pu in the pure synthetic groundwater were 0.01 nM
and 0.13 nM, respectively, compared to 0.02 nM and 0.31 nM in the pyoverdin solution. Furthermore, spent nuclear fuel samples
were observed to release Ru in the presence of both pyoverdin and DFAM. Hence, it seems that siderophores can form complexes
with elements present in spent nuclear fuel.
Authors:A. Johnsson, A. Ödegaard-Jensen, A. Jakobsson, C. Ekberg, and K. Pedersen
The aqueous-phase partitioning of 59Fe, 147Pm, 234Th and 241Am by complexing compounds from subsurface bacteria has previously been studied in the presence of quartz sand. In this study
the aqueous-phase partitioning of pico-to submicromolar amounts of 59Fe, 147Pm, 234Th and 241Am was analyzed in the presence of TiO2 and exudates from three species of subsurface bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Shewanella putrefaciens. All were grown under aerobic conditions and P. stutzeri and S. putrefaciens were grown under anaerobic conditions as well. The supernatants of the aerobic and anaerobic cultures were collected and
radionuclide was added. TiO2, with BET surface area of 49.9 m2·g−1, was added to the supernatant radionuclide mix, and the pH was adjusted to approximately 8. After incubation, the amount
of radionuclide in the liquid phase of the samples and controls was analyzed using scintillation method. Two types of values
were calculated: solution% = the activity maintained in solution relative to the total activity, and Q-values = the quotient between the activity in samples and the activity in controls. Aerobic supernatants had solution% values
between 89% and 100% for 59Fe and between 18 and 43% for 234Th. The solution% values for 241Am and 147Pm were less than 2% overall, but the Q-values were between 34 and 115 times more 241Am in bacterial supernatants than in controls. The corresponding values for 147Pm ranged from 6 to 20 times more than in the control. The solution% values for all elements in the presence of anaerobic
supernatants were below 2%, but the Q-values clustered around 7 for 59Fe and ranging from 2 to 29 for 234Th, indicated that anaerobic supernatants partitioned these elements to the aqueous phase. Both aerobic and anaerobic supernatants
tested positive for complexing compounds when analyzed, using the Chrome Azurol S assay. Complexation with excreted organic
ligands is most likely the reason for the higher amounts of metals in samples than in the controls. Hence, aerobically and
anaerobically excreted organic ligands seem able to influence the mobility of radionuclides in aerobic and anaerobic environments
contaminated with these compounds.
Authors:Elise Ivarsen, Christoffer P. Andersen, Sabine M. Jensen, Carsten T. Pedersen, and Anders K. Svaneborg
This study presents the optimization and validation of methods for the analysis of retinol, thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, zinc, and iron in fortified kernels (coated and extruded) and in fortified rice. The analyses were performed by HPLC-UV/FLD/MS and ICP-OES. The optimized methods showed good resolution of the analyte peaks, excellent recovery (87–108%), reproducibility with relative standard deviation (SD) of analyte content between 1.8 and 11% and high correlation coefficient of the calibration curves (R2 > 0.997). Limit of detection was from 2.8 E-4 mg/kg for pyridoxine to 1.26 mg/kg for zinc and limit of quantification was from 9.2 E-4 mg/kg for pyridoxine to 4.21 mg/kg for zinc. Thereby the optimized methods demonstrated reliability and sensitivity in the detection and quantification of these micronutrients and that they are suitable for routine analysis of fortified kernels (coated and extruded) and fortified rice.