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As in the case of other wheat diseases, adult plant resistance (APR) to powdery mildew remains effective longer than monogenic hypersensitive resistance, so the objective was to identify winter wheat genotypes with this type of resistance. Field and greenhouse tests conducted on 41 varieties and breeding lines indicated that 36 were susceptible in the seedling stage, and only five were resistant in all stages of development. It is probable that these latter genotypes contain major resistance genes. The area under the disease progress curve was the same for most of the wheat genotypes as for the APR control variety Massey, but varieties and lines with significantly better resistance were also identified. Among the genotypes in the Martonvásár breeding stock, Mv Táltos and the line Mv07-03 were found to have excellent adult plant resistance.

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Fifty Triticum aestivum genotypes, including winter wheat cultivars from Martonvásár, were tested for fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance under artificially inoculated conditions. Field resistance, kernel infection, and the relative yield components (test weight, thousand kernel weight and kernel weight/heads) were examined following infection with Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum isolates. Using data from two years, a number of Martonvásár varieties with above-average resistance to FHB were identified. On the basis of field infection, AUDPC values close to those of resistance sources were calculated for the variety Mv Emese, while 67.5% of the varieties tested had values which did not differ significantly from those of the control variety Arina. The yield components examined were modified substantially by artificial FHB infection. The thousand kernel weight and test weight of the variety exhibiting the greatest degree of infection were only 21.14% and 25.58%, respectively, of the untreated control. In one case the decline in the kernel weight/head was more than 90%. The results of multivariable statistical analysis indicated that among the Hungarian wheat genotypes, Bánkúti 1201, B9086-95 (a line derived from Bánkúti 1201), Mv Emese, Martonvásári4 and Mv Táltos could be grouped with the best sources of resistance. The experimental data revealed wide genetic variability for FHB resistance in the Martonvásár breeding stock.

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A barley mapping population consisting of 96 doubled haploid lines of anther culture origin was developed from the varieties Dicktoo and Kompolti Korai, which represent diverse types with respect to geographical origin and ecological adaptation. Several molecular marker techniques were used in mapping: among the markers with known chromosome location, RFLP, STS and SSR markers were applied to identify linkage groups and for comparative mapping, while RAPD and AFLP markers, which have random binding but provide useful information on polymorphism, were employed to fill in the linkage groups with markers. A total of 496 markers were tested in the DH population, 246 of which were included in the linkage map after eliminating markers that were completely linked with each other. The ratio of markers with known chromosome location to random markers in the 1107 cM map was one to three, and the mean recombination distance between the markers was 4.5 cM. Application of various marker methods and the effect of the population structure on the development of marker linkage maps are discussed.

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Authors: I. Szendrő, K. Erdélyi, Zs. Puskás, M. Fábián, N. Adányi, and K. Somogyi

Due to the changes of the refractive indices, the planar optical waveguides are sensitive to the surrounding media, to the adsorbates, etc. on their surface. The sensitivity of such a waveguide layer can be enhanced when its thickness is lowered down to the nanometer range. Such sensors can be successfully operated both in inorganic chemistry and in life sciences as label free biosensors. Principles and some results are demonstrated. Further on, application of transparent conductive oxides for voltammetric measurements in combination with the classical waveguide sensor will be demonstrated. Development and results of a combined system is described and first results with simultaneous measurements are demonstrated. An indium tin oxide nanolayer is deposited and activated on the top of the sensor chip. This electrically conductive oxide layer serves as working electrode in the specially developed electrochemical cuvette. In this work results are presented for simultaneous use of these two methods and for simultaneous measurement of refractive index changes of the waveguiding system and that of electrical current changes. The first basic results are demonstrated using H2O2 and dye solutions, using KCl and TRIS as buffer and transport media.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: G. Vida, M. Cséplő, G. Gulyás, I. Karsai, T. Kiss, J. Komáromi, E. László, K. Puskás, Z. Wang, C. Pace, Z. Bedő, L. Láng, and O. Veisz

Among the factors which determine yield reliability an important role is played by disease resistance. One of the breeding aims in the Martonvásár institute is to develop wheat varieties with resistance to major diseases. The winter wheat varieties bred in Martonvásár are examined in artificially inoculated nurseries and greenhouses for resistance to economically important pathogens. The effectiveness of designated genes for resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust has been monitored over a period of several decades. None of the designated major resistance genes examined in greenhouse tests is able to provide complete resistance to powdery mildew; however, a number of leaf rust resistance genes provide full protection against pathogen attack (Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr35). In the course of marker-assisted selection, efficient resistance genes (Lr9, Lr24, Lr25 and Lr29) have been incorporated into Martonvásár wheat varieties. The presence of Lr1, Lr10, Lr26, Lr34 and Lr37 in the Martonvásár gene pool was identified using molecular markers. New sources carrying alien genetic material have been tested for powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance. Valuable Fusarium head blight resistance sources have been identified in populations of old Hungarian wheat varieties. Species causing leaf spots (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum) have gradually become more frequent over the last two decades. Tests on the resistance of the host plant were begun in Martonvásár four years ago and regular greenhouse tests on seedlings have also been initiated.

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