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Exercise-caused metabolic changes can be followed by monitoring exhaled volatiles; however it has not been previously reported if a spectrum of exhaled gases is modified after physical challenge. We have hypothesized that changes in volatile molecules assessed by an electronic nose may be the reason for the alkalization of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid following physical exercise.Ten healthy young subjects performed a 6-minute running test. Exhaled breath samples pre-exercise and post-exercise (0 min, 15 min, 30 min and 60 min) were collected for volatile pattern (“smellprint”) determination and pH measurements (at 5.33 kPa CO2), respectively. Exhaled breath smellprints were analyzed using principal component analysis and were related to EBC pH.Smellprints (p=0.04) and EBC pH (p=0.01) were altered during exercise challenge. Compared to pre-exercise values, smellprints and pH differed at 15 min, 30 min and 60 min following exercise (p<0.05), while no difference was found at 0 min post-exercise. In addition, a significant correlation was found between volatile pattern of exhaled breath and EBC pH (p=0.01, r=−0.34).Physical exercise changes the pattern of exhaled volatiles together with an increase in pH of breath. Changes in volatiles may be responsible for increase in EBC pH.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Gábor Skaliczki, M. Weszl, K. Schandl, T. Major, M. Kovács, J. Skaliczki, H. Redl, M. Szendrői, K. Szigeti, D. Máté, Cs Dobó-Nagy and Zs Lacza

Purpose: The clinical demand for bone grafting materials necessitated the development of animal models. Critical size defect model has been criticized recently, mainly for its inaccuracy. Our objective was to develop a dependable animal model that would provide compromised bone healing, and would allow the investigation of bone substitutes. Methods: In the first group a critical size defect was created in the femur of adult male Wistar rats, and a non-critical defect in the remaining animals (Groups II, III and IV). The defect was left empty in group II, while in groups III and IV a spacer was interposed into the gap. Osteoblast activity was evaluated by NanoSPECT/CT imaging system. New bone formation and assessment of a union or non-union was observed by μCT and histology. Results: The interposition model proved to be highly reproducible and provided a bone defect with compromised bone healing. Significant bone regeneration processes were observed four weeks after removal of the spacer. Conclusion: Our results have shown that when early bone healing is inhibited by the physical interposition of a spacer, the regeneration process is compromised for a further 4 weeks and results in a bone defect during the time-course of the study.

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