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  • Author or Editor: K. Song x
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Driven by updated building energy codes and green building initiatives across the world, vacuum insulation panel, also known as VIP, has become a desired insulation product for building envelope constructions. VIP has initial center-of-panel thermal conductivity of 0.004 W/mK or lower, and integration of VIP in building envelopes can reduce CO2 emissions and contribute towards ‘net-zero’ or ‘near-net-zero’ building constructions. Although VIPs have been applied in real-world constructions across the world, primarily in Asia, Europe and North America, it is still a novel building product under investigation. This overview paper is a summary of fundamentals, constituents, constructions and performances of VIPs. The paper shows there exists many advantages and challenges associated with the integration of VIPs in building envelope constructions. The speed at which VIPs will be integrated in building envelope construction in the coming years remains unclear; nevertheless, it is evident that vacuum technology is the promising way forward for sustainable building envelope constructions in the 21st century.

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This paper presents a rapid and quantitative radiochemical separation method for the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes with an anion exchange resin and a TRU resin. After the Pu isotopes were purified with an anion exchange resin method and the Am and Cm isotopes were purified with the TRU resin method, micro-coprecipitation method was applied for an alpha-source preparation. The activity concentrations and activity ratios for the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in a radioactive sample were measured by radiation counting methods such as an alpha-spectrometry and a liquid scintillation counting as well as by a mass spectroscopic method such as a thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

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In order to remove the radiotoxic nuclides, Cs+ and I, from low-level liquid wastes, the adsorption characteristics have been studied using a mixed adsorbent of chabazite zeolite and activated carbon. The equilibrium data of each nuclide were well correlated with the DA equation in the wide range of equilibrium concentrations. The SEM-EDAX analysis provided precise understanding of the adsorption mechanism of each nuclide. A surface diffusion model was applied to estimate the intraparticle mass transfer and provided prediction results acceptable for practical implementation in the liquid waste treatment.

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In this work, an easy, fast and reliable measurement technique for the quantitative determination of retained fission gases in an irradiated oxide fuel was developed. Many experiments were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for fusion of an oxide fuel, for the quantitative collection and measurements of the released gases. Ion implantation technology was applied to make a krypton or xenon references in a solid matrix. A fragment of oxide fuel, about 0.1 g of an unirradiated SIMFUEL, was completely fused with excess metallic fluxes, 1.0 g of nickel and 1.0 g of tin, in a graphite crucible of a helium atmosphere for 120 s at 850 A as a mixture of metals and alloys. About 96 ± 3 to 98 ± 4% of the krypton and xenon that were injected into the instrument using a standard gas mixture was reproducibly recovered by collecting the releasing gas through the instrument for 120 s. Using the same fusion and collection conditions, it was possible to recover about 97 ± 3% of the injected krypton and xenon by fusing a fragment of SIMFUEL which was wrapped with krypton or xenon implanted aluminum foils. The recovery test results of krypton and xenon using ion planted aluminum foils gave encouraging results suggesting their potential use as a reference specimen. It was confirmed that a fragment of irradiated oxide fuel, 0.051 g, with a code burn-up of 56.9 MWd/MtU, was completely fused as the mixture of metals and alloys through the fusion conditions and more than 99% of the retained fission gases were recovered during the first fusion. Since no cryogenic trap was needed, the collected gas could be measured directly and thus the analysis time could be further reduced. Approximately 7 min was sufficient to finish the measurement of retained fission gases in the irradiated oxide fuel using the developed procedure.

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A neutron induced prompt γ -ray spectrometry (NIPS) facility has been developed at the Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) with the aim of analyzing the major components of various elements in aqueous samples. The facility is equipped with a 252Cf neutron source and a γ-γ coincidence setup with two n-type coaxial HPGe detectors based on NIM spectrometric modules in association with data acquisition and spectral analysis systems. The development of the system, its set-up and the calibration of detection efficiency up to 8 MeV using a set of radionuclides and the (n,γ) reactions of chlorine are described in the paper.

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In this work the analysis procedures of fission gas compositions and their isotopic distributions using a gas chromatography (GC) system and/or a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system were established, and their analysis results were reviewed in order to evaluate their analytical performance. Also, the accumulated data, up to now, regarding fission gas measurement were reviewed to discern any irradiation histories of the punctured fuel rods. A simple gas injection apparatus was designed and fabricated for the quantitative injection of a small volume of fission gas into the GC and the QMS system. With an appropriate temperature controlling of a molecular sieve 5A column, nitrogen, krypton and xenon of a mixture gas was clearly separated within 7 min. According to the analysis results, the relative standard deviation in the determination of fission gas compositions, krypton and xenon, by the GC analysis or by the QMS analysis was about 1%. Based on the review results of the isotopic ratios of krypton and xenon of the released fission gas, it is likely that no abnormally irradiated rods, i.e. defected rods, were included among the punctured rods.

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Electronic stopping power of 19F in Ni, Pd and Gd was measured and compared to Mstar and SRIM calculation as well as experimental results published in literature. It turns out that the present electronic stopping power agrees reasonably well with them.

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[Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O was prepared by mixing the aqueous solution of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one and cadmium carbonate in excess. The single crystal structure was determined by a four-circle X-ray diffractometer. The crystal is monoclinic, space group C2/c with crystal parameters of a=2.1229(3) nm, b=0.6261(8) nm, c=2.1165(3) nm, β=90.602(7), V=2.977(6) nm3, Z=4, Dc=2.055 gcm−3, μ=15.45 cm−1, F(000)=1824, λ(MoKα)=0.071073 nm. The final R is 0.0282. Based on the results of thermal analysis, the thermal decomposition mechanism of [Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O was derived. From measurements of the enthalpy of solution of [Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O in water at 298.15 K, the standard enthalpy of formation, lattice energy, lattice enthalpy and standard enthalpy of dehydration have been determined as -(1747.84.8), -2394, -2414 and 313.6 kJ mol−1 respectively.

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Gliadins were extracted from three wheat varieties, viz. Nongda 99260037 (good quality), Henan 9023 (media quality) and Nongda 98123 (poor quality), and α-, β-, γ-, ω -gliadins were purified from Nongda 99260037 using preparative SDS-PAGE. The total gliadins and α-, β-, γ-, ω -gliadins were used as antigens to immunise BALB/C mice, and the corresponding polyclonal antibodies were prepared, designated as Anti-A, Anti-B, Anti-C, Anti-A α , Anti-A β , Anti-A γ and Anti-A ω , respectively. Binding of the polyclonal antibodies with 8 varieties, that varied in quality properties, showed correlations with some wheat quality parameters. Correlation coefficients between antibodies against total gliadins or γ -, and ω -gliadin of Nongda 99260037 and quality parameters were higher than other antibodies. Of seven polyclonal antibodies tested, three (Anti-A γ , Anti-A ω and Anti-A) displayed significant positive or negative associations between antibody binding and dough development time, strength, valorimenter value and stability time, but no significant correlations were observed with water absorption. These results suggest that polyclonal antibodies could be used for rapid prediction and screening of wheat quality parameters.

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High-yield common buckwheat ‘cv. Fengtian 1’ (FT1) and tartary buckwheat ‘cv. Jingqiao 2’ (JQ2) were selected to investigate the characteristics of the grain-filling process and starch accumulation of high-yield buckwheat. FT1 had an average yield that was 43.0% higher than that of the control ‘cv. Tongliaobendixiaoli’ (TLBDXL) in two growing seasons, while JQ2 had an average yield that was 27.3% higher than that of the control ‘cv. Chuanqiao 2’ (CQ2). The Richards equation was utilized to evaluate the grain-filling process of buckwheat. Both FT1 and JQ2 showed higher values of initial growth power and final grain weight and longer linear increase phase, compared with respective control. These values suggest that the higher initial increasing rate and the longer active growth period during grain filling play important roles to increase buckwheat yield. Similar patterns of starch, amylose and amylopectin accumulation were detected in common buckwheat, leading to similar concentration of each constituent at maturity in FT1 and TLBDXL. Tartary buckwheat showed an increasing accumulation pattern of amylose in developing seeds, which differed from that of starch and amylopectin. This pattern led to a significant difference of the concentrations of amylose and amylopectin at maturity between JQ2 and CQ2, the mechanisms of which remained unclear. Nevertheless, both FT1 and JQ2 showed increased starch, amylose, and amylopectin accumulation during the physiological maturity of grains. The results suggest that prolonging the active grain-filling period to increase carbohydrate partitioning from source to seed sink can be an effective strategy to improve buckwheat yield.

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