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Under the sponsorship of the U.S. National Science Foundation, CHI Research, Inc. developed the bibliometric indicators for the U.S. National Science Board'sScience Indicators Reports starting withScience Indicators 1972. In the work reported here, for the Commission of the European Communities, CHI has extended the Science Indicators techniques and database to a study of publication, coauthorship and citation within 28 scientific fields related to various European Community programs.Perhaps the most important finding of the research was that internationally coauthored papers — papers authored by scientists affiliated with institutions in more than one EC country — were cited two times as highly as papers authored by scientists working at a single institution within a single country. These EC-EC internationally coauthored papers were cited as highly as EC-Non EC and Non-EC papers. This indicates that the internationally linked European science is of as high impact as any other science in the world.A second key finding was that, after compensating for national scientific size, the degree of international coauthorship did not appear to be particularly dependent upon size. However, linguistic and cultural factors were found to be very strong. The patterns of coauthorship amongst the European countries are far from homogeneous, and are quite heavily affected by linguistic, historical, and cultural factors.Finally, it was found that international coauthorship is increasing steadily, both within and outside of the Community, with some evidence that international cooperation is increasing more rapidly in scientific fields that have been targeted by the Commission.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Fedia Rebah
Chayma Ouhibi
K. H. Alamer
Najoua Msilini
Mouhiba Ben Nasri
Rebecca Stevens
, and
Houneida Attia

We aimed to examine the response of three tomato introgression lines (IL925.3, IL925.5 and IL925.6) to NaCl stress. These lines originated from a cross between M82 (Solanum lycopersicum) and the wild salttolerant tomato Solanum pennellii, each line containing a different fragment of the S.pennellii genome. Salt-sensitive phenotypes related to plant growth and physiology, and the response of antioxidants, pigments and antioxidant enzymes were measured. In general, salt stress decreased the fresh weight of leaves, leaf area and leaf number and an increase of Na+ accumulation in aerial parts was observed, which caused a reduction in the absorption of K+ and Ca2+. Salt stress also induced a decrease in chlorophyll, carotenoids and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and an increase in anthocyanins and reduced ascorbate, although some differences were seen between the lines, for example for carotenoid levels. Guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase activity enhanced in aerial parts of the lines, but again some differences were seen between the three lines. It is concluded that IL925.5 might be the most sensitive line to salt stress as its dry weight loss was the greatest in response to salt and this line showed the highest Na+ ion accumulation in leaves.

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