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  • Author or Editor: K. Swain x
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Abstract  

A simple preconcentration approach for quantitative separation and determination of traces of rhenium in geological matrix using neutron activation analysis is presented in this work. Anionic species of rhenium were collected on small amounts of anion-exchange resin beads from a large-size geological sample solution followed by neutron irradiation of the resin beads and measurements of rhenium activity for its quantification. ∼200 mg of resin beads were used to concentrate rhenium from 0.5 to 5 gram of the borehole samples. Radioactive tracers of the analyte directly and in the presence of the matrix were used to establish the separation process. During the present work the detection limit of rhenium was found to be 10 ng/g.

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Abstract  

An analytical methodology has been developed for the separation of arsenic from ground water using inorganic material in neutral medium. The separation procedure involves the quantitative retention of arsenic on hydrated manganese dioxide, in neutral medium. The validity of the separation procedure has been checked by a standard addition method and radiotracer studies. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), a powerful measurement technique, has been used for the quantitative determination of arsenic.

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Abstract  

During the present work rare earth elements (REEs) in Periyar River water and in seawater from the region of Mumbai, India, have been measured via neutron activation analysis. To separate and concentrate REEs a pre-irradiation separation approach via ion exchange was adopted. Standard addition and radiotracer studies were carried out to validate the analytical methodology including the recoveries of the separations. The measured REE concentrations in the water samples are presented and discussed.

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Abstract  

Basic aspects of pollution and the role of analytical chemistry in environmental monitoring are highlighted and exemplified, with emphasis on trace elements. Sources and pathways of natural and especially man-made polluting substances as well as physico-chemical characteristics are given. Attention is paid to adequate sampling in various compartments of the environment comprising both lithosphere and biosphere. Trace analysis is dealt with using a variety of analytical techniques, including criteria for choice of suited techniques, as well as aspects of analytical quality assurance and control. Finally, some data on trace elements levels in soil and water samples from India are presented.

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Abstract  

Appreciable amounts of different arsenic compounds are used in the manufacture of glass and glass ampoules (injection vials and bottles) used to store drugs. Exposure/intake of arsenic to human beings may result in skin ulceration, injury to mucous membranes, perforation of nasal septum, skin cancer and keratoses, especially of the palms and soles and may cause detrimental effects. Considering the toxicity of arsenic, even if traces of arsenic from such glass containers/ampoules are leached out, it can impart damage to human beings. To check the possibility of leaching of arsenic from glass ampoules, a simple methodology has been developed. Different makes and varieties of glass ampoules filled with de-ionized water were subjected to high pressure and temperature leaching for varying amount of time using autoclave to create extreme conditions for the maximum leaching out of the analyte. Subsequently, the determination of the arsenic contents in leached water using neutron activation analysis is reported in this paper in detail with observations.

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Abstract  

The k 0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA) method was used for the analysis of 30 large and non-standard geometry ancient pottery samples obtained from Buddhist sites of Andhra Pradesh, India. One freshly finished pottery and a sun-drenched pottery were also analyzed for comparison. Samples were irradiated in thermal column facility of Apsara reactor and also in graphite reflector position of critical facility of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. Concentration ratios of 15 elements with respect to Sc were determined. The La/Ce values as well as statistical cluster analysis utilizing concentration ratios of elements were used for grouping/provenance of the potteries.

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Summary  

A simple pre-irradiation separation approach has been worked out for the determination of traces of tellurium in high purity selenium followed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the end determination of the analyte/s. The difference in volatilities of these elements has been utilized for the separation of the analyte from the matrix. The complete volatility of selenium at ~600 °C was established using neutron activation analysis and selenium radiotracer. Standard addition was used to validate the results. The proposed method of separation of selenium prior to irradiation could make the determination of tellurium possible and also improved the detection limit by several folds.

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Abstract  

Large sample neutron activation analysis of dross from India Government Mint, Mumbai was carried out for quantification of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) using graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor critical facility at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The k 0-based internal monostandard NAA was used to calculate concentration ratios of Au and Ag with respect to sodium (Na), which was used as an internal monostandard. The concentration ratio values of Au to Na of varying mass of dross showed that mass ≥2 g was the representative sample size for analysis. Concentrations of gold and silver were found to be in the range of 200–400 and 1200–1700 mg kg−1, respectively in three different samples.

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Summary  

A simple ion-exchange separation procedure was developed for selective removal of antimony from synthetic cloth to facilitate determination of several trace elements frequently used to identify gunshot residues by neutron activation analysis. Radiotracers of Sb, Ba, Cu, Co, As, Zn, Hg and Ag were employed to optimize the developed procedure. The method involves the quantitative retention of the above elements, except of Sb, from 0.2M ammonium carbonate solution using Chelex 100 resin and subsequent quantitative elution of the elements of interest with 2M nitric acid for gamma-ray spectrometry. The procedure was tested by simulated gunshot residues.

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