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Kernel samples of two maize hybrids (46308 and 463017) with different levels of resistance to Fusarium ear rot were collected from artificially and naturally infected plants. The spectral characteristics of the samples were analysed with an ASD Fieldspec 3 MAX spectroradiometer in the wavelength range of 350 to 2500 nm using an ex situ method. The different extents of artificial and natural Fusarium infection on the maize kernels resulted in spectral differences detectable with a spectroradiometer. The data showed that for both genotypes the level of Fusarium infection generated by artificial inoculation was significantly higher than that caused by natural infection over a wavelength range of 2030 to 2080 nm. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the data set for this range revealed that the first component explained 77.0% of the variability for hybrid 46308 and 97.0% for hybrid 46317.

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Despite recent evidence of the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption in arteriosclerosis prevention, the neurotoxic effects of alcohol abuse are well known. Our hypothesis was that uncontrolled alcohol consumption may cause cerebrovascular damage detectable by rheoencepholography (REG), a noninvasive bio-impedance technique for estimating cerebral blood flow. Test subjects were 48 alcoholic patients in Hungary; the control group consisted of 12 drug-addicted and depressed patients in Hungary and 13 healthy male subjects in the United States. Additional subgroups were formed according to smoking habits and average daily alcohol dose. REG was measured by a computer-based system, “Cerberus”; REG anacrotic time above 180 ms was considered pathological. ANOVA showed that daily alcohol consumption and smoking were significantly higher in alcoholics than in drug-addicted and depressed patients. Twelve alcoholics showed a pathological REG anacrotic time. Longer REG anacrotic time was correlated with higher daily alcohol consumption. In the alcoholic group, the steeper regression line of REG slope reflected the pathological impact of alcohol abuse. The healthy control sample showed a nearly identical slope for both REG and age. The correlation of increased REG anacrotic time and daily alcohol consumption supports the hypothesis that REG detects accelerated cerebrovascular aging (arteriosclerosis) in alcoholic subjects.

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The hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy is a promising future tool in the field of optical remote sensing and it creates new perspective for modern information management in site specific agricultural production. One can determine quantitative relationships between the environmental and physiological parameters of vegetation cover and the soil quality parameters as well as the features of the reflectance spectra by the newgeneration data monitoring and sampling method. These reflectance spectra have characteristics of the different crops and provide with the possibility of accurate classification and detection. The objective was to present the technological capabilities of hyperspectral imaging and show some exprimental results of nutrient sensitive changes in the winter wheat spectra. There were found two characteristic wavelength ranges: the 500 to 800 nm for wheat kernel samples and the 1650 nm to 1800 nm for wheat ear samples where fertilizer treatments showed definite trend on the basis of the normalized reflectance spectra.

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In this paper, a new technical solution is introduced for the substrate mixing in a digester. The novelty content lies in the direction changes of the gravitational forces that influence the movement of organic and mineral biomass fractions. Digester case is designed as a horizontal cylinder rotating around a horizontal axis. Digester rotates in water that is in the outer casing.

This design creates a lift force for rotating digester which reduces the load on the bearings. The friction is reduced and therefore it reduces the energy loss of digester rotation and mixing of the substrate.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: K. Szalay, B. Keller, R. Rák, N. Péterfalvi, L. Kovács, J. Souček, F. Sillinger and A. Jung

Abstract

One of the biggest challenges of raspberry production in Hungary nowadays is reducing the unfavorable effects of climate change. The maturation phase of main varieties within this region falls in a period of extremely high temperature and atmospheric drought detaining desirable fruit growth. Dedicated plant breeding alone is not enough. An immediate action is required. There has been a need for physical protection against excessive direct radiation. In order to restore, or even save the domestic raspberry production and market, introducing of greenhouse or polytunnel solutions are needed. Experimental plantations of three different raspberry varieties were set in two repetitions: covered and uncovered versions. Each cover has characteristic interaction with light which can generate different environmental conditions and also differences in plant growth and fruit quality. Besides the monitoring of elementary biological indicators, a wide range of sensors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiation) was used to identify differences and to find the optimal tunnel material for maximal plant productivity. Within the framework of the project we also tested a portable spectroradiometer and a snapshot imaging camera to study the practical value of proximal sensing in water- and photosynthetic light use efficiency and vitality mapping.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: K. Szalay, B. Keller, R. Rák, N. Péterfalvi, L. Kovács, J. Souček, F. Sillinger and A. Jung

Abstract

One of the biggest challenges of raspberry production in Hungary nowadays is reducing the unfavorable effects of climate change. The maturation phase of main varieties within this region falls in a period of extremely high temperature and atmospheric drought detaining desirable fruit growth. Dedicated plant breeding alone is not enough. An immediate action is required. There has been a need for physical protection against excessive direct radiation. In order to restore, or even save the domestic raspberry production and market, introducing of greenhouse or polytunnel solutions are needed. Experimental plantations of three different raspberry varieties were set in two repetitions: covered and uncovered versions. Each cover has characteristic interaction with light which can generate different environmental conditions and also differences in plant growth and fruit quality. Besides the monitoring of elementary biological indicators, a wide range of sensors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiation) was used to identify differences and to find the optimal tunnel material for maximal plant productivity. Within the framework of the project we also tested a portable spectroradiometer and a snapshot imaging camera to study the practical value of proximal sensing in water- and photosynthetic light use efficiency and vitality mapping.

Open access
Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Krisztina Rusai, A. Prokai, C. Juanxing, K. Meszaros, B. Szalay, K. Pásti, V. Müller, U. Heemann, J. Lutz, T. Tulassay and A. Szabo

Previous experimental data suggest that steroids might have protective effects during hypoxic/ischemic injury of various organs. In this study, the association between dexamethason (Dexa) treatment and the anti-apoptotic SGK-1 was tested in ischemic renal injury. In vitro, HK-2 cells were exposed to 24 h hypoxia, and the effect of Dexa incubation on SGK-1 expression / activation and on cell death was studied. In an in vivo rat model of unilateral renal IR, animals were treated with Dexa, and serum renal function parameters, tissue injury and SGK-1 expression and localization were examined after different reperfusion times (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). Dexa at a dose of 2 mg/L exerted a protective effect on cell survival assessed by LDH release and vital staining paralleled by marked up-regulation of SGK-1. In rats, 2 mg/kg Dexa treatment 24 h prior to ischemia resulted in less severe tissue injury and ameliorated urea nitrogen levels 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, SGK-1 expression and phosphorylation were higher in Dexa animals demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Our results provide novel data on the signalling mechanism of Dexa under hypoxia / ischemia and further support that Dexa emerges as an attractive pharmacological agent for the prevention of ischemic injury.

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