You are looking at 1 - 10 of 20 items for
- Author or Editor: K. Szentmihályi x
- Refine by Access: All Content x
The application of medicinal plant drugs for curing has become popular again. The favourable effects of most of them have been examined and proven. Nevertheless, the beneficial properties of plants and extracts may be due to inorganic mineral elements besides organic constituents. Investigation of microelement content in plant drugs may be relevant for the determination of environmental relations. In pharmacological aspect microelement content in teas is essential. For plants, all extracts (teas, alcoholic extracts, etc.) prepared by divers ways (traditional-, microwave extraction, etc.) contain elements in different quantity. The comparison of microelement content of definite amount of tea consumed with Recommended Dietary Allowances, Dietary Reference Intake may give information on possible nutritional value.
Chelidonii herba has long been known in herbal medicine for its choleretic, cholagogue, spasmolytic and antiviral activities. It is important to monitor the amount of mineral elements in Chelidonii herba preparations consumed mainly for their phytotherapeutical effects. In addition to organic compounds, dissoluble mineral elements in the teas and tinctures of herbs may also have a role in therapy. The concentration of 24 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti, V, Zn) in crude drugs (herb and root), in their aqueous solutions (infusion, decoction) and alcoholic extracts were studied by ICP-OES. The difference between the concentration of elements in extracts - except for copper, manganese and sodium - was highly significant. It has been found that the root contains higher concentrations of mineral elements except for boron, copper, phosphorus and sulphur. The infusion contained most elements in the highest concentration and proved to be the best source for obtaining minerals. The same tendency was observed in the case of dissolutions. In aqueous extracts, the dissolution of mineral elements was between 10% and 65% for most elements, especially for potassium (65%) and phosphorus (54%). The dissolution of mineral elements in the case of tinctures decreased with increasing alcohol concentration. It may be stated that the presence of macro- and microelements in extracts greatly contribute to their therapeutical value.
Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ) is frequently used for making tea and it is also applied as spice. Since the digestion of oils is relatively difficult and the undigested oil may greatly alter the element data, three different acid mixtures (nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid) were tested for determination of element content in fennel. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and polarography were applied for the determination of elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, S, Se and Zn). The extraction was realised by using microwave digestion technique under low and high pressure. Lucerna p-alfalfa as reference material was used for the accuracy and precision of the analytical procedures. According to the results, it can be stated that the digestion of medicinal plants containing oil could be realised by aqua regia.
Greater celandine ( Chelidonium majus L.) is used internally as a herbal remedy besides external applications. It was supposed that the elements besides organic compounds in greater celandine also have favourable effect as adjuvants, therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability of the elements. The element transfer through the gastrointestinal system was measured by in vitro model from the pressed extract into buffer solutions with different pH (stomach pH=1.1, intestine pH=2.8, plasma pH=7.5). It was stated that the elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, S, Zn) were able to be absorbed through the stomach-bowel system, since they passed through the membrane. The transfer of the elements from the latex into the different buffer solutions greatly depends on the element and the pH of applied buffer solution. The transfer of the elements from the latex ranged between 0.9% (Ca into buffer solution pH=7.5) and 59.3% (B into buffer solution pH=2.8). The transfer of the highest amount of elements was observed in the case of buffer solution pH=2.8, and less transferable elements were Ca with 33.64% and Mg with 33.89% of the initial value. On the basis of results, it can be stated that the elements are able to transfer through the gastrointestinal system and may have adjuvant effects.
Hemp seed and hemp seed oil can supply us with many important substances. Their essential fatty acid compositions are favourable, but they may contain non-psychotropic cannabinoids. Emerging data show that these components can influence the health status of the population beneficially. Some data also showed trace amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol in seed oils, the main psychotropic cannabinoid that is contraindicated.Our aim was to examine cannabinoids and fatty acid composition as well as metal and non-metal element compositions in products, like hemp seed oil and chopped hemp seed capsule.The cannabinoids were separated by thin layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition was determined with gas chromatography, and elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sn, Sr, V, and Zn) were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric method. Selenium was determined with polarographic analyser.Cannabinoids were not detectable by thin layer chromatography, so hemp seed oil, as well as the capsule, have no psychotropic adverse effect. Our data showed that hemp seed contains essential fatty acids close to the recommended ratio. The B and Se concentrations of the oils and the P concentration of the capsule are also relevant.
Magnesium participates in numerous enzymatic reactions in the human body and it has essential role in the maintenance of the antioxidant system. Since several magnesium compounds have been applied in the food and pharmaceutical industry, our purpose was to investigate the antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity of some magnesium compounds in vitro. The antioxidant/prooxidant effect of inorganic salts (e.g. MgCl2) and organic complexes (e.g. Mg-gluconate) was determined with chemiluminometric method (H2O2/•OH-microperoxidase-luminol) and heme mediated LDL oxidation (LDL-heme-H2O2 ) in vitro. It has been stated that the chemiluminescence method and LDL (low density lipoprotein) oxidation measurement is applicable in the presence of magnesium salts and complexes. Most of the compounds do not generate free radicals and the antioxidant/prooxidant effect depends on the quality of the ligand and the concentration. In the concentration range used, some representatives of the magnesium compounds (MgO, Mg-gluconate, Mg-polygalacturonate) investigated showed radical generating activity measured with chemiluminescence method, whereas the LDL oxidation has not been affected. Magnesium citrate and malate proved to be antioxidants measured with the chemiluminescence method and they slightly accelerate the LDL oxidation in the system and in the concentration applied. In vitro some of the ligands of magnesium compounds showed antioxidant activities.
Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae) has been used in European phytotherapy as a urological and antiphlogistical remedy for centuries. The behaviour of dissolution of mineral elements into different tinctures and aqueous extracts obtained from Solidaginis herba was investigated in connection with their quercetin glycoside and organic acid amount. Commonly applied aqueous and alcoholic extracts were analysed for Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, S, Ti, V and Zn content. The concentrations of the minerals examined were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of the flavonoids in solidaginis herba and extracts was carried out by a spectrophotometric method, as required by the German Pharmacopoea. For the study of the flavonoid composition of crude drug, the HPLC technique was applied. To determine the relative nutrient contribution of these pharmaceuticals to the diet, data obtained were combined with flavonoid content particulars, then a comparison with U.S Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) was made. For evaluation of the phytotherapeutic relevance, k/Na ratio was also calculated. It has been found that the pharmaceuticals examined are important sources of potassium, chromium, manganese, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and lower sources of iron and zinc, assuming a daily intake of 1-2 l aqueous extracts as recommended for urological diseases. Flavonoid content of the different Solidaginis herba extracts ranged from 62.4 mg l-1 to 305.2 mg l-1.
In vitro investigations for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Myrtilli folium-, Phaseoli fructus sine seminibus- and a drug mixture (Equiseti herba, Myrtilli folium, Phaseoli fructus sine seminibus, Urticae folium) extracts showed antioxidant (LPO inhibitory and chain-breaking antioxidant) activity and free radical (superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical) scavenging effect. The extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation induced enzymatically by adding NADPH and non-enzymatically by adding Fe2+ in brain microsomes and in brain homogenates, respectively. The extracts reduced the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), which showed chain-breaking antioxidant activity. The extracts scavenged superoxide radicals (O2-·) by inhibiting the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium evoked by phenazine methosulphate. In addition, the extracts inhibited Fenton-reagent (Fe2+ and H2O2) induced deoxyribose degradation, therefore, it was concluded that the extracts have hydroxyl radical (OH·) scavenging property.