In this article the effects of government infrastructure investment in a small open economy environment are analysed. Apart from enhancing the country’s output directly, government spending on capital — modelled here as development of public infrastructure — creates positive externalities in the production process of the private sector. Short- and long-run effects of ambitious development programs, depending on the source of financing (transfers or loans from abroad), are addressed. The empirical relevance of the quantitative conclusions to be derived from the present stylised form of the model is admittedly limited. However, the qualitative conclusions can add some new insights and contribute to the lively debate on the expected effects of government investments and EU transfers on macroeconomic development.
Ethylenediaminotetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP, H8L) was prepared and its complexes with some lanthanide ions (La, Eu, Gd and Sm) were isolated under various conditions. IR spectra and thermal stabilities of EDTMP and its complexes were studied. The experimental conditions of the preparation influence to the composition of the complexes were shown. In alkaline solution (pH=8) deprotonated (P(O)(O–)2), and in acidic solution (pH=3–4) deprotonated and partly protonated (P(O)(O–)(OH)) and non-protonated (P(O)(OH)2) phosphonic groups are present in the complexes. All the complexes contain coordinated water molecules. The complexes containing a protonated phosphonic group contain coordinated and hydrogen-bonded water molecules.
A study was made of the thermal decompositions of 22 derivatives of[M(en)3]X3 type complexes. Partial de-amination leading to the formation of[M(en)2X2]X type complexes occurs in the case ofM=Cr(III) ifX=Cl, Br, I orNCS, but in the case ofM=Co(III) it is possible only ifX=Cl. In other cases redox reactions hinder the formation of stable intermediates. Kinetic parameters were derived for the dehydration of 19 compounds.
A lélegeztetett betegek sorsának kimenetele hosszú és rövid távon is függ az intenzív osztályon és a lélegeztetőgépen töltött időtől. Az intenzív osztályos kezelést túlélt betegek egészséghez kötött életminősége bizonyítottan összefügg az intenzíves kezelés fizikai és pszichés hatásaival. Előző multicentrikus randomizált vizsgálatunkban bemutattuk az intenzíves kezeléssel egy időben adott pszichés támogatás hatását.
A jelen post hoc analízis célja, hogy bemutassa a pszichés támogatás hatását, amikor azt folytonosan ugyanaz, a teamhez tartozó terapeuta biztosítja.
A post hoc analízisbe 36 beteg került: 17 a kontroll-, 19 a vizsgálati csoportba. A vizsgálati csoport naponta részesült pozitív szuggesztiókon alapuló pszichés támogatásban, amelyet a kezelés minimum 50%-ában ugyanaz a terapeuta végzett. A kontrollcsoport ugyanazt a kezelést kapta, a pszichológus bevonása nélkül. A két csoport között nem volt különbség korban, nemben, SAPSII-pontokban és az orvosi alapellátásban.
Az eredmények szignifikánsan rövidebb gépi lélegeztetést (3,6 nap,
< 0,014) és osztályon tartózkodást (4,2 nap,
< 0,022) mutattak a vizsgálati csoport esetében.
Ezek az eredmények igazolják az intenzív osztályos team teljes tagjaként alkalmazott pszichológus értékét és annak fontosságát, hogy gondoskodjunk a betegek pszichés támogatásáról.
Magnesium participates in numerous enzymatic reactions in the human body and it has essential role in the maintenance of the antioxidant system. Since several magnesium compounds have been applied in the food and pharmaceutical industry, our purpose was to investigate the antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity of some magnesium compounds in vitro. The antioxidant/prooxidant effect of inorganic salts (e.g. MgCl2) and organic complexes (e.g. Mg-gluconate) was determined with chemiluminometric method (H2O2/•OH-microperoxidase-luminol) and heme mediated LDL oxidation (LDL-heme-H2O2 ) in vitro. It has been stated that the chemiluminescence method and LDL (low density lipoprotein) oxidation measurement is applicable in the presence of magnesium salts and complexes. Most of the compounds do not generate free radicals and the antioxidant/prooxidant effect depends on the quality of the ligand and the concentration. In the concentration range used, some representatives of the magnesium compounds (MgO, Mg-gluconate, Mg-polygalacturonate) investigated showed radical generating activity measured with chemiluminescence method, whereas the LDL oxidation has not been affected. Magnesium citrate and malate proved to be antioxidants measured with the chemiluminescence method and they slightly accelerate the LDL oxidation in the system and in the concentration applied. In vitro some of the ligands of magnesium compounds showed antioxidant activities.
A number of 7 complexes of the [Co(DH)2(amine)2)]I type (DH2 stands for dimethyloxime) have been studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in nitrogen atmosphere, by using heating rates of 2.5, 5 and 10 K min–1. In all cases an endothermal deamination reaction occurs leading to the relatively stable [Co(DH)2I(amine)] intermediate. For this reaction apparent kinetic parameters have been derived. The influence of heating rate is discussed. The validity of a linear and a non-linear kinetic compensation law was verified.
Long stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and prolonged ventilation are deleterious for subsequent quality of life and surcharge financial capacity. We have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of using suggestive communication on recovery time during intensive care. The aim of our present study was to prove the same effects with standardized positive suggestive message delivered by an MP3 player. Patients ventilated in ICU were randomized into a control group receiving standard ICU treatment and two groups with a standardized pre-recorded material delivered via headphones: a suggestive message about safety, self-control, and recovery for the study group and a relaxing music for the music group. Groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and mortality, but the SAPS II scores were higher in the study group than that in the controls (57.8 ± 23.6 vs. 30.1 ± 15.5 and 33.7 ± 17.4). Our post-hoc analysis results showed that the length of ICU stay (134.2 ± 73.3 vs. 314.2 ± 178.4 h) and the time spent on ventilator (85.2 ± 34.9 vs. 232.0 ± 165.6 h) were significantly shorter in the study group compared to the unified control. The advantage of the structured positive suggestive message was proven against both music and control groups.
The purpose of intensive care is recovery from the critical state with the best possible quality of life. Lengthy therapy with its physical and psychological complications and iatrogen effect may spoil the expected outcome. The positive effect of the psychological support of the patient that can be proven empirically has been applied and examined in the present study. In the present prospective, randomised, controlled study the patients – mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours – of two intensive care units of Budapest have been examined. In the study they were given psychological support based on positive suggestions (PSBPS) using their susceptibility induced by the situation, complementing their somatic treatment. Altogether 60 persons have been examined (27 in the control, 33 in the suggestion group). The result showed a statistically significant 2.5 day shorter ventilation period (
< 0.04). The length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) was also reduced by 4 days in the group who received suggestions. If the patient was treated by the same psychologist during at least 50% of the ICU stay, both parameters were reduced by 3.5 days at a significance level of
< 0.01. In the case of those patients with the same psychologist who died during the study, it was mainly their age and state that contributed to their death. Their dying was 4.5 days shorter or they left the ICU sooner than the control group members, in whose case lengthy ventilation was typical.
Risk factors for and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by ESBL-producing and by ESBL-non-producing
were compared in a four-year multicenter study in Hungary. One hundred ESBL-positive and one hundred ESBL-negative patients were included as cases and controls. Investigated risk factors were related to demographics, comorbid conditions, treatments, invasive procedures, surgery prior bacteremia, presence of additional nosocomial infections and preceding hospital admission within a year. Measured outcomes were crude mortality, mortality related to infection and delay in introducing appropriate therapy (DAT). Though some risk factors for infection (admission to intensive care units, having central venous and/or urinary catheter, mechanical ventilation) were shared by both groups, in other respects cases and controls were found to differ substantially. The 36 percent of patients with BSIs with ESBL-producing Klebsiella died versus 23 percent of controls (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–5.4; p = 0.02). The 18 percent of deaths in cases versus 9% in controls could be attributed to infection (OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.5–16.2; p = 0.006). Cases more often received previous antibiotic therapy than controls (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.7; p = 0.02) and delay in the introduction of appropriate antibiotic treatment was observed in 44% of cases versus 19% of controls (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.6–7.3; p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that BSIs caused by ESBL-producing
are related to previous antibiotic therapy and are associated with a high rate of mortality that is often linked to delay in the introduction of appropriate antibiotic therapy. This confirms that besides infection control measures the early identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of the infecting pathogen is salient in the control of BSIs caused by ESBL-producing