Sticky “cloak” traps (CSALOMON® PAL) baited with the synthetic pheromone racemic 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane were most efficient among the trap designs tested for catching male olive fly
Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae
Gmelin (Diptera, Tephritidae) in field tests in Croatia. Colour cues did not influence male catches. Consequently transparent sticky “cloak” traps baited with pheromone appear to be the best choice for detection and monitoring of males of the olive fly in Croatia. Female flies did not respond to the pheromone, however, were weakly attracted to the visual cues of yellow and fluorescent yellow.
Theridion impressum is one of the dominant foliage dwelling spider species of maize fields in Hungary. Spider webs were collected from Bt and isogenic maize plots in three successive years. Captured insects in the web were identified. The most frequent prey items were aphids, plant hoppers and beetles. Although the number of captured insects in web samples from isogenic maize was slightly higher than those from Bt maize in the case of almost each insect order, except for two samples (Sternorrhyncha, 2001; Neuroptera, 2002), the differences between Bt and isogenic samples were not significant.
Authors:I. Szedljak, K. Szántainé Kőhegyi and M. Tóth
Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is more resistant to climatic and soil conditions but the yields are lower than in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), therefore its cultivation was given up for decades in Hungary. Millet is a suitable raw material for the production of pasta products without using eggs and it has other advantageous physiological effects, therefore its cultivation in Hungary is expected again. Millet is a gluten free cereal so it is not able to create viscoelastic protein network. During the biochemical studies the activity of enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase) influencing the colour of the flour, flour mixtures (T. aestivum L., Triticum durum L., P. miliaceum L.), and pasta products were examined. Oxidoreductases in wheat flour have always been of interest to cereal chemists. The effects of peroxidase (EC 188.8.131.52) (POX) are much less thoroughly documented, although they are reported to have a relatively high level of activity in different flours. These days there are also insufficient research data on how the millet in dry pasta modifies the enzyme activity and the storage stability and shelf life of dry pasta products.
We investigated alfalfa and stinging nettle from the point of view of their potential to supply natural enemies of pests for protecting greenhouse cultures. We carried out a three year long study based on sweepnetting. The most frequent predatory insect was
(Wolff) in alfalfa and nettle. This species among others has an important potential in the biological control of thrips. Among ladybugs, the most important species in alfalfa and nettle were
(Goeze), which consume significant amounts of aphids. The most frequent spider family in alfalfa and nettle was Thomisidae and Philodromidae. The dynamics of their prey composition suggests that these taxa present a significant suppressive force on pests. The predator thrips
Bagnall that feeds on phytophagous thrips, mites and other soft-bodied arthropods was also significant in the arthropod assemblage of alfalfa. Our three-year investigation showed that the abundance and the species richness of the natural enemies of greenhouse crops are suitably high in both alfalfa and nettle stands. The number of generalist predators, natural enemies of pests, the most versatile tools of pest management reached its peak between mid-May to late June in nettle whereas due to mowing, the highest values for alfalfa were recorded from June to mid-August.
Authors:K. Gribovszki, F. Schulek-Tóth and P. Varga
Deterministic seismic hazard computations were performed along four different profiles across the downtown of Budapest. Synthetic seismograms were computed by the so called “hybrid technique”. By applying the hybrid technique it is possible to take into account the focal source, the path and the site effect together. Four independent computations have been performed using the same seismic source but different profiles. The parameters of the seismic source were adopted from the parameters of the well-known 1956 Dunaharaszti earthquake. The focal mechanism and the homogeneous and heterogeneous parts of the profiles are known from geophysical and geological data of the investigated area.As the results of the computations PGA (peak ground acceleration) grid maps of the downtown of Budapest for the three different components came into existence. Furthermore spectral acceleration (response spectra, SA) and RSR charts of the synthetic seismograms for the four different profiles were created. The PGA grid maps show that the maximal PGA values are situated at the eastern (Pest) part of the downtown, and their values are 50–200 cm/s
.For the downtown of Budapest a special seismic risk map have been prepared. This special seismic risk map were created on the basis of the difference between the maximal amplitude frequencies of SA of synthetic seismograms and the building’s eigenfrequencies at every 0.1 km
of the downtown. In order to determine the building’s eigenfrequencies microseismic noise measurement were performed at 6 different buildings in the downtown. The special seismic risk map shows that the buildings situated at the hilly western section of the downtown have higher seismic risk than the ones at the flat eastern part.
Authors:K. Tóth, K. Balogh, A. Bócsai and M. Mézes
Forage plants may become contaminated by mycotoxins already on the cropland as a result of mould infection, the degree of which can be diminished by the use of appropriate agrotechnical methods or resistant plant cultivars. During storage, the main goal is to prevent further mould infection and mycotoxin contamination. In that period, the moisture content of feedstuffs and the mould contamination of storage spaces, which can be minimised by the use of fungicidal products, are the most critical factors. Feed manufacturing processes do not substantially decrease the mycotoxin content of feedstuffs, and the efficiency of the recommended chemical and/or heat treatment procedures is also questionable as they are expensive and may reduce the nutrient content. To minimise the adverse effects of mycotoxins on animals, the use of products capable of binding and biologically transforming mycotoxins is also recommended; however, such products have varying efficacy.
Benthic diatom investigations of some Hungarian streams have been carried out in order to find reference sites in assistance to the ecological quality analysis of the different river types according to the Hungarian river typology. On the basis of the coevaluation of biological and chemical parameters, among the investigated streams, some part of Kemence stream seems to be the appropriate reference site for the classification of the highland, siliceous rivers of Hungary. However, further invastigations are needed for the selection of reference sites for the other types of Hungarian river typology. This is the most difficult in the case of lowland rivers, which are exposed to more severe anthropogenic impacts. Important is the question which biological parameters should be investigated and considered when assessing the ecological condition of our waters. In the United States, e.g. the assessment of the relative abundance of Achnanthidium minutissimum is quite widespread (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), the extent of which indicates the level of disturbance. The use of this method is hampered, on one hand, by the fact that A. minutissimum is an early coloniser species which means that if we do not take samples from mature periphyton, we might find it dominant simply because of that, and, on the other hand, that distinguishing between the species varieties is not always unambiguous under light microscope because of its small size, and these can have different ecological needs. It is also recommended to calculate species richness, diversity and evenness (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), but based on our investigations these parameters are not in correlation with water quality. Investigation of other diatom features such as tolerance and sensitivity, some autecological parameters (as it was applied and recommended by Fore and Grafe 2002 for investigating the reaction of diatom associations to anthropogenic disturbances) might also be useful in completing the water quality analysis of rivers, however, these methods need further investigations. Some of the indices (EPI-D, IPS, IBD) calculated with the software Omnidia are suitable for the classification of our rivers, but the investigation of more rivers, flowing through different types of stone are necessary to choose the appropriate indices. The reason for this is that the different indices work with a different register of species and obviously those indices will prove to be suitable the species register of which shows the highest similarity to the diatom associations of the certain water type.
Authors:Z. Ruzsa, K. HÜttl, K. Tóth and B. Merkely
Rotational atherectomy (RA) in peripheral circulation is an advanced revascularization procedure, often used in cases where traditional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is inadequate and bypass grafting is either unavailable or undesired. We report on a case, where RA was successfully performed after failed traditional PTA. The case highlights the importance of RA in peripheral cases where severe calcification occurs and the lesion is not suitable for PTA (cannot be passed with balloon or is undilatable).
Authors:I. Szedljak, K. Szántai-Kőhegyi, M. Tóth and B. Bernhardt
Millet has attracted a great deal of interest due to its valuable agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. In this study the aim was the investigation of millet usability in dry pasta products. Chemical, enzymological, and sensory parameters were measured and monitored in Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum, and millet containing pasta products during a 12-month-long storage period. According to our results, during the storage, millet had a strong effect on different parameters: because of increased acid value, the shelf life was reduced, and millet significantly influenced the pH value and the water soluble polyphenol content. The highest scores were measured in T. durum and T. durum-millet pasta samples in the sensory test, while the T. aestivum-millet mixture pasta got the lowest scores. Also in our experiment we tested how the drying temperature modifies polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO) activity right after drying and during storage. The samples containing millet flour had higher PPO activity in all cases after drying, while pasta made with T. durum had the lowest PPO activity. Our results showed that drying temperature has a significant impact on PPO activity.
Authors:B. Hámori, K. Szabó, A. Derecskei, H. Hurta and L. Tóth
The basic institutions and legal frames of a market economy were established quite quickly after the regime change in East-Central Europe, including Hungary. But there has been a much slower change in the behaviour of economic actors. The purpose of the research was to show the extent to which the competitive attitude and the cooperative behaviour both essential to market economies have developed in the nearly two decades since the regime change.* Are the actors in the economy capable of a positive response to the appearance of foreign competitors, or has the old, anti-competitive attitude still been prevailing? How is the behaviour of the competitors influenced by state intervention? The answers to these questions are based on 71 semi-structured interviews and on their comparison to the data of some international surveys. In the paper we were searching for links between the picture developing from the interviews and the age of the interviewees, the market position and the size of their firms.