The practical implementation of precision crop production nowadays is becoming more and more widespread. Numerous experiments and farmers’ practical experiences verify the positive impacts of precision nutrient supply on farming. Precision weed control started to spread later, partly due to technical difficulties, partly to the lack of necessary software support that was developed later. The introduction of a new technology requires complex farm-management decisions, including the consideration of economic correlations (costs-yield-income) as well as high-level skills and significant investments from the farmer. These investments can be returned from the income surplus realized through increasing yields and decreasing farming costs. Extra income can also come from the decreasing material costs which, however, do not necessarily compensate the extra costs of implementing the new technology and depends very much on the utilization of savings from different herbicide doses used for the treatment of plots, considering the soil qualities. This study, utilising the data of a technological experiment carried out in Hungary, presents the results of a stochastic simulation model developed with the adaptation of finite element method. The examination was executed at sub-plot level, dividing the plots into small parcels. Our aim was to examine the impact of precision nutrient application and differentiated spraying of herbicides on production costs and yield, as well as the impact of changes on gross margin (income) and the returns on technological development.
Authors:L. Barkaszi, A. Arutyunjan and K. Takács-György
It has been proved that because of the different past of the parcels regarding their soil, agronomical and technological parameters, weed sampling results may not be generalised. Therefore it is necessary to study those solutions how to determine on an acceptable confidence level a parcel’s weed infestation with optimised sampling techniques.For studying the question we have delimited on wheat stubble a total sample area of 36×54 metres (using it as reference) and divided it into 2×2 cells giving a total of 486 sample cells. Then we surveyed the weed infestation and GPS recorded the location of each cell.We have analysed the weed infestation data with mathematical and statistical methods comparing the results of cells with each other and with the total sample area. We found that in several cases of different sample cells weed infestation displayed a diverse picture. This way sampling of weeds is extremely difficult.We found close relation between relative frequency of weeds and sampling accuracy. Therefore sampling is reliable only for surveying the frequent weeds in a parcel, while more rarely found weeds (e.g. spots of perennials) are to be scouted only by means of going over the parcel and GPS recording them. Otherwise, in the case of a traditional sampling process, the number of sampling cells required for acceptable reliability is unnecessarily high.Consequently, it is necessary to further study the economic and cost efficiency aspects of the needed weed sample density from the point of view of reasonable sample density, accuracy and optimal yield.
Authors:K. Shanava, Sz. Horváth, F. Karl-Hermann, Sz. Jávor, I. Takács, B. Balatonyi, S. Ferencz, A. Ferencz, E. Rőth and György Wéber
Introduction:The Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is an abdominal operation carried out with flexible endoscopic instruments and their advanced versions via natural orifices. The NOTES causes theoretically less pain, operative stress, shorter hospitalization, quicker recovery and it is scarless. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of transgastric small bowel resection. Materials and methods: Seven domestic pigs were investigated and entered the study; body weight 25 kg in average. General anesthesia was performed. One trocar was used for laparoscopic observations during gastrotomy and transgastric penetration with the gastroscope, later for assistance with a grasper for manipulation of the bowel loops and for the application of the linear stapling device. Then the needle knife was used to complete a 1.5 cm long incision in the gastric wall. The gastroscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity and a small bowel loop was identified and elevated with a flexible grasper. Through the second channel of the scope a coag grasper was used to dissect the mesentery. Then a linear stapler was inserted through the assisting trocar and the resection was performed. Afterwards the bowel ends were opened with the needle knife and the stapler was reinserted for a side-to-side anastomosis. The specimen was removed via the stomach. Gastric closure was completed by laparoscopic mini-instruments through the stapler-port. All special events and all problems were prospectively documented. Follow-up was performed over 2 weeks and body weight was recorded. Then a laparoscopy was performed to document adhesions or abscess formation. Finally the animals were sacrificed to evaluate further evidence of infection or adhesions. Results: The operations were carried without complications, there was no case of letal outcome. On the 12th day the abdominal laparoscopic revision was carried out, after the revision in one case adhesion could be detected, no other kinds of complications were noticed. Conclusion: According to our results, the transgastric small bowel resection is a safe procedure, but further special instruments are needed. These experimental procedures should be evaluated carefully and critically in clinical practice.