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  • Author or Editor: K. Toyoda x
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Abstract  

Activation is one of the severe problems at the high-energy accelerator facilities. By using gamma-ray spectrometry and activation detector technique, we could obtain important information on (1) nuclear reactions, (2) energy spectra of secondary particles, (3) penetration behavior of secondary particles in shield wall, (4) historical record of beam loss occurred in the accelerator rooms. It was concluded that the technique and knowledge of activation analysis are very useful to solve the radiation protection problems at the accelerator facilities.

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Abstract  

For decommissioning of the cyclotron and electron synchrotron facilities, the residual radioactivity in surface and core samples of concrete, collected from various parts of buildings, was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. It was found that the concrete samples were activated mainly by neutrons and that the major radioisotopes were 152Eu, 60Co, 134Cs, 22Na and 54Mn. The maximum activity induced by thermal neutron capture was observed at the depth of 10 cm in the concrete wall near the deflector of the cyclotron. Tritium was also produced by the neutron reaction, because its concentration was proportional to the activities of 152Eu and 60Co. The surface dose rates inside the accelerator room were also monitored to define the decontamination area. The surface dose rate was proportional to the residual radioactivity, such as 60Co. A careful evaluation was very useful in order to minimize the radioactive waste during decontamination.

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Abstract  

The spatial distribution of neutrons was measured at the muon science laboratory of KEK by the activation detector method using an imaging plate for the radioactivity measurement. It was confirmed that this method is highly sensitive to detect the average neutron dose of 10 µSv/h. The distribution of thermal and epithermal neutrons was also measured in the experimental room. The cadmium ratio inside the experimental room is one except for the neutron leakage point. The spatial distribution of neutrons inside the concrete shield of KENS was measured by the same method. Aluminum and gold foils were used for the measurement of fast and thermal neutrons, respectively. Two dimensional change of the reaction rate of the 27Al(n,α)24Na reaction shows a good agreement with the results calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation using MARS14 code. Thermal and epithermal neutron flux ratio on the beam axis was measured by the cadmium ratio method. The flux ratios were about 30 and almost constant for every slot except for the surface of the shield, because the cadmium ratio is 2. This method was very useful to measure the activity of many pieces of detector simultaneously without any efficiency and decay correction. Wide dynamic range and high sensitivity are also the merit of this method.

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Abstract  

Highly selective and sensitive γ-ray detection was performed by coincidence and anticoincidence event analysis after list-mode data acquisition using an HPGe spectrometer equipped with NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillation detectors. In order to obtain the most suitable detection of specific nuclides, coincidence or anticoincidence spectra could be freely constructed by extracting events with particular time and energy correlations. Although the detector arrangement of this system was the same as that of a typical Compton suppression spectrometer, background counts were drastically reduced and γ-rays of particular nuclides could be selectively detected by using γ-γ, γ-X, γ-X-X, and γ-β+ coincidences.

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Abstract  

In this study, using neutron activation analysis with multi-parameter coincidence method which was developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), a non-destructive, ultra-high sensitive multi-elemental determination has been realized. The multi-parameter coincidence method is carried out with an array of 19 germanium detectors, GEMINI-II. Using this system, very weak γ-rays emitted from trace amounts of elements can be detected. The iridium concentration has been determined by means of neutron activation analysis with multi-parameter coincidence method for Cuban sediment samples across the K/T boundary strata.

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Abstract  

Multiparameter coincidence g-ray spectrometry based on g-g coincidence is widely used in the field of nuclear structure studies, and has produced many succesful results. In this paper, feasibility of the method for neutron activation analysis of trace elements was studied. Particularly, a long-lived radioisotope 129I (T1/2 = 1.57.107 y) in algae samples and iridium in geological samples has been determined.

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