The findings of ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 265 dogs with GI disorders were analysed retrospectively. The sonographic changes associated with various inflammatory and neoplastic conditions and mechanical obstruction of the GI system were recorded and discussed. Sonographic alterations of the pancreas and the tissues adjacent to the GI tract were also included in the study. Ultrasonographic alterations of the GI tract were classified into three main categories: thickening of the GI wall, changes in peristalsis and dilation of the lumen. Localised thickening of the GI wall with disruption of its structure was caused by both neoplastic diseases and by inflammatory disorders. However, diffuse thickening with retained wall structure was generally associated with inflammatory diseases. The criteria previously established for the ultrasonographic diagnosis of intestinal obstruction were successfully applied to a large number of GI disorders. Pancreatitis was most often associated with hyperechoic mesentery and hypoechoic pancreas mass, but similar alterations were encountered in some cases of gastric or duodenal ulceration. Except in cases of invaginations and intestinal obstructions, the observed ultrasonographic changes were not specific enough for a definitive diagnosis. Nevertheless, ultrasonography proved to be a valuable technique in the diagnostic process of GI disorders of the dog.
The dough characteristics of fifty popular Indian hexaploid wheat varieties were assessed by testing various rheological properties using a Brabender Farinograph and an Extensograph. These studies were aimed at evaluating the flour quality and functionality of the wheat dough. Based on the rheological dough properties of 50 Indian hexaploid wheat varieties it was recommended that 13 wheats could be useful for blending purposes, 31 varieties could be used for both bread and chapatti making, and the remaining 6 wheats were found suitable for biscuit making. The outcome of the experiments will be useful for plant breeders, millers and bakers.
Lower and upper epidermises of leaves of interspecific hybrids
Thymus × oblongifolius
Opiz and its parent species —
L. — were studied using light microscope. The density of stomata and glandular trichomes, the diameter of glandular trichomes and the number of epidermal cells around the one glandular trichome were measured. The big diversity of investigated anatomical features was characteristic for
T. × oblongifolius
plants. The density of stomata and glandular trichomes distinguished for big diversity particularly. The stomata density on lower epidermis and the number of epidermal cells around the one glandular trichome on both epidermises of the interspecific
T. × oblongifolius
hybrid stood an intermediate position compared with those of parent species. The glandular trichomes density on upper and lower epidermises put together of leaves was major at
T. × oblongifolius
, however the diameter of hybrids glandular trichomes was less than at parent species.
Preliminary attempts to georeference maps of early twentieth century made by the Military Geographic Institute (IGM, the Italian geodetic agency) for the city of Rome and its surroundings, reported residual errors larger than errors observed on similar maps. Previous studies carried out on one or two century older maps of the same area, showed similar or even smaller errors (Baiocchi and Lelo 2005).Six sheets of the “City of Rome and its surroundings” map in scale 1:5 000 dated 1908 have been studied. The identified errors can be referred to the different system of geodetic projection and geodetic datum or to the derivation of some details from maps at smaller scale, but in this case historic documents seem to suggest a different explanation.Parameters useful to perform the transformation of the geodetic systems used in historical maps to modern systems are not known; for this reason until now the various attempts of georeferencing maps of this type were based on collimation of points recognizable on modern cartographies such as corners of historical buildings. This method has often given unsatisfactory results; therefore it was decided to proceed by determining the parameters for the transformation of geodetic datum.The history of geodetic systems used in Italy at the beginning of the 20th century is complex and, in the past, this has led some researcher to misinterpretations. For this reason a full explanation of geodetic systems used in Italy in this period is reported below. Since the parameters of the projection used for the maps in our case study are not known for sure, the reprojection was considered the only way for a correct georeferencing.
The procedures developed and standardised for estimation of ultra trace quantities of Pu and Am in environmental samples involve matrix dependent sample preparation, preconcentration of the nuclides by coprecipitation on iron hydroxide and or bismuth phosphate, ion exchange, electrodeposition and counting by alpha spectrometry. Isotopic analysis of Th in chicken bone using oxalate precipitation, ion exchange, electrodeposition and alpha spectrometry has indicated higher build up of228Th in chicken bone from monazite areas possibly from metabolized228Ra.
During the years 1974–77 about 200 low level mercury analyses on samples with less than 1000 ng Hg/kg were made at the Danish
Isotope Centre. This paper describes our method of neutron activation analysis for low level mercury analysis. The accuracy
of the mercury analyses is shown by the results of the determinations on NBS standard, SRM 1642, and on intercalibration analyses.
The accuracy found is better than 10% for samples with about 100–300 ng Hg/kg and better than 10 ng Hg/kg for samples with
less than 100 ng Hg/kg. The limit of detection for the analyses is about 1–5 ng Hg/kg, depending on the sample and the exact
method of analysis. The lowest standard deviations on duplicate analyses are about 1 ng Hg/kg. The general level found in
sea water is about 10 ng Hg/kg, in ground water about 50 ng Hg/kg, and in rain water about 100 ng Hg/kg.
A systematic study was undertaken in order to find out which of the most relevant elements can be determined in water under
normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized
water samples as well as natural water of different kind were used, brought to dryness by freeze-drying and irradiated in
quartz at a neutron flux of 1014 cm−2 s−1 for 1 day. The trace element content in quartz ampoules of different origin was determined separately. The following elements
are discussed in detail including possible interferences: As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Ni, Sb,
Sc, Se, U, Zn.
A model of an ideal associated solution, containing self-associates of different sizes and shapes, was considered. Calculations
of the thermodynamic properties of mixing of Na-K liquid alloys and of liquidus line positions were carried out. Possible
modifications of the model are discussed.