Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 43 items for

  • Author or Editor: K. Varga x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

OTKA-projektünk empirikus eredményeiből felépített világnézet-szociológiai vitakötetünk kissé valláskritikusra „sikeredett”. Nemcsak a vallásosság hazai erőviszonyairól adott lesújtó képet (például, hogy ez egyre gyengül, ahogy megyünk lefelé az életkorok vagy felfelé az iskolázottság rétegeiben), de arról is, hogy ez a vallásosság nem óvja meg közszereplőit a torzsalkodó machiavellizmustól (sőt, mintha erre inspirálnáőket, ahogy ezt a rendszerváltás hajnalán egymást kiátkozó cserkészszövetségek esetében vagy a konzervatív pártok tragikomikus forgácsolódásában láthattuk). A mindennapi életben pedig követőit egy, csak rosszul feloldható dilemma elé állítja: vagy kötelességtudat, vagy hatékonyság – ahogy ez a Milton Rokeach értékteszt-battériájával gyűjtött országosan reprezentatív adatainkból kiviláglott. A tanúskodásra hívott, megvesztegethetetlen empíria szerint ugyanis hazánkban a hatékonyság mint instrumentális érték a hedonizmus célértékével járt együtt, míg az „emelkedett komolyság” hagyományosan vallásos célérték-típusának (üdvözülés, bölcsesség, barátság stb.) eszközértéki megfelelőjeként de facto csupán az engedelmesség maradt 3 .Igaz viszont,hogymásfelől már a vallásszociológia klasszikusainál megtalálhattuk és jelen polgáriasuló társadalmunkra alkalmazni próbáltuk azt az összefüggést, amely a tisztességes iparkodásban boldogulást keresőpolgár – kézműves vagy bizonyos feltételek mellett a kereskedő – gazdasági létfeltételei és a vallásosság etikailag racionális világszemlélete között fönnáll. Max Weber meggyőzően mutatja ki, hogy a becsületesség saját érdeke, jelesül, hogy a tisztességes munka és kötelességteljesítés elnyeri „jutalmát”, és hogy az ilyen munka „meg is érdemli” méltányos bérét, könnyen kialakítja azt a viszonosságetikai szemléletet, amely egyébként is közel áll mindegyik nem kiváltságos réteghez: „…összehasonlíthatatlanul közelebb, mint a katonához vagy a háborúban és politikai terjeszkedésben gazdaságilag érdekelt nagy pénzmágnáshoz, aki éppen bármely vallásosság etikailag racionális elemei számára a legkevésbé hozzáférhető

Restricted access

Abstract  

In this paper, methodology and applicability of the in situ radiotracer “thin gap” method are presented and discussed via some studies of Cr(VI) electroreduction on Pt electrode by measuring the low energy (E = 4.90 keV) X-rays of 51Cr used for labeling. Two types of scintillators, 2 mm thick β-plastic and 300 μm thick CaF2(Eu), were tested for nuclear detection. The plastic scintillator cannot be utilized for selective measurement of the soft X-rays emitted by 51Cr, hence, it does not allow us the estimation of the surface excess of chromium containing species on Pt electrode. In contrast to this, CaF2(Eu) is suitable for selective detection of low-energy X-rays; therefore, the radioelectrochemical cell equipped with the latter detector provides very promising measuring conditions for the extension of the radiotracer “thin gap” method towards application of the low-energy X-ray emitters.

Restricted access

Summary  

In this paper, experimental results obtained by the in-situ radiotracer and voltammetric studies of the competitive adsorption of the HSO4 -/SO4 2- (labeled with 35S) and Cl- (labeled with 36Cl) anions on bare Aupoly substrate and Aupoly surfaces modified by the Zn adatoms in the lower pH region (pH≤4.5) are presented and discussed. In addition, some data on the formation of Zn adlayers (labeled with 65Zn) are reported to demonstrate the complex features of the underpotential deposition (UPD) phenomenon. It has been revealed that (1) the relative adsorption strength of Cl- ions on bare Aupoly is higher than that of H2PO4 -/PO4 3- and HSO4 -/SO4 2- ions in the entire pH region studied; (2) anomalous tendency of the specific adsorption of anions on polycrystalline gold modified by Zn adatoms occurs at pH 4.5 as follows: PO4 3->SO4 2->Cl->>ClO4 - and (3) the UPD of Zn2+ ions on polycrystalline gold is measurable even from solutions containing 5 . 10-8M Zn2+ over the entire potential range where the hydrogen evolution takes place.It is, however, plausible to assume that the coverage of the gold surface by Zn adatoms measured even at solution concentrations of c≥5 . 10-4M does not exceed one monolayer.

Restricted access

Abstract  

A new approach for the characterization of coatings with respect to their corrosion protection is presented. The applicability of a simple in situ radiotracer method and some information which can be gained from sorption measurement of corrosive ions are demonstrated based on the results obtained in case of HSO4 /SO4 2– accumulation on a coating chosen. The technique used has low detection limit and the measurements can be performed without disturbing the primary experimental conditions.

Restricted access

Summary  

During the period of 1993-2001 chemical decontaminations of 24 SGs in the units 1-3 of the Paks NPP were carried out by a non-regenerative version of AP-CITROX technology, even in two or three consecutive cycles. A comprehensive investigation of the above decontamination method have revealed that the fundamental issues of analytical chemistry and corrosion science were not taken into consideration during the elaboration of AP-CITROX procedure. Therefore, the non-regenerative version of the technology utilized at Paks NPP can be considered to be not an adequate method for the chemical decontamination of any reactor equipments having large steel surfaces (e.g., SGs). As a consequence of the lack of the appropriate decontamination method, initiation of a R&D project focused on the elaboration of the required technology should not be postponed. In this paper, we present a brief overview on the fundamental issues of the technology development. Selected findings obtained in our laboratory on the field of the improvement of the AP-CITROX technology are also reviewed in order to demonstrate the crucial role of some selection criteria.

Restricted access

The unfavourable effects of climate change were studied in terms of changes in the stress tolerance of cereals. The yield and physiological parameters of two winter wheat genotypes (Mv Mambó, Mv Regiment) were analysed in the phytotron after water was completely withheld for 7 or 14 days in three phenophases. The plants were raised in climate chambers, one adjusted to ambient CO2 concentration and the other to a higher level (750 μmol mol−1). The aim of the present work was to determine the correlations between the duration of water withholding and the phenological, physiological and yield parameters of winter wheat. It was hoped to identify how elevated CO2 levels affected the stress sensitivity of plants and whether they contributed to counteracting the damaging effects of drought. In both varieties, the grain mass decreased to the greatest extent when water was withheld at first node appearance (5.9–71.3%). A longer period of drought at first node appearance and grain filling only reduced the grain number and mass in the case of enhanced CO2. The yield and physiological parameters of Mv Regiment, however, deteriorated substantially as a result of water deficiency, though this variety was better able to utilise surplus CO2, giving outstanding results at elevated CO2 level.

Restricted access

In anticipation of a future vaccination program against rotavirus disease, a longitudinal survey has been set up to evaluate the epidemiologic features of rotavirus infections. In this report hospitalisation data and serotyping results are compiled from an epidemiologic survey conducted in Baranya County, Hungary. It was found that rotavirus-associated hospitalisation constituted a major part of infectious gastroenteritis cases (range, 14.9% to 28.5%). A higher proportion of rotavirus-positive cases was recorded when the serotype of predominant strains changed from G1 (1996-1999) to G4 (1999-2000), however, due to the short time period it was not possible to demonstrate a firm association between serotype prevalence and rotavirus-associated hospitalisation rate. In the future, such studies might help to understand if serotype-specific immunity against rotavirus infection plays an important role at the population level and if (re-)emerging rotavirus strains make an impact on the annual disease burden.

Restricted access

Preparation and investigations of polyimides III

Thermal investigation of the imidization of polyamide acid powders

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
J. Varga
,
T. Meisel
,
K. Belina
, and
J. Balla

Polyamide acid powders of pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether base were prepared in tetrahydrofuran, in the heterogeneous phase. The imidization of these powders was investigated by thermogravimetric, calorimetric and mass-spectrometric methods.

Restricted access