now represents three almost equally frequent species in Hungary.
Toninia opuntioides, T. physaroides
were investigated in the same locality for comparison of various parameters of their microhabitats. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the niche preferences of these species. More than two hundred soil samples were analysed in the respect of six soil parameters. Aspect and slope degree of the microsites, and the abundance of associated bryophyte and lichen species were also studied. ANOVA revealed that there are significant differences between the species in acidity, carbonate content, soil depth, aspect and slope degree.
Three common terricolous Toninia species (Toninia opuntioides, T. physaroides and T. sedifolia) — formerly kept under Toninia coeruleonigricans — were investigated in the same locality for comparison of various substrate parameters of their microhabitats. Classification and regression trees (CART) were used to examine the niche preference of these species. Additionally, we also examined the predictability of the colonising species given the particular characteristics of a site. More than two hundred soil samples were analysed in the respect of eight soil parameters. The classification trees revealed that the different species prefer distinct substrate types, each of which was defined by combination of 3–4 environmental variables. Carbonate content, pH, hygroscopicity, soil depth and exposition seem to be the most important predictors of abundance.
The activation of indium by gamma-ray source through absorption of photons of resonance energy and the threshold energy (appearance
energy) determination in indium compounds as well as some results of hot atom chemistry studies of indium compounds and of
implantation with indium ions are described.
Authors:T. Sekine, K. Yoshihara, Zs. Németh, L. Lakosi and Á. Veres
A new nuclear excitation process,99Tc (,
)99mTc reaction, was applied for the first time to radioactivation analysis of technetium. Bremsstrahlung irradiation of99Tc samples gave the reaction product99mTc which emits -ray measurable with ease by a semiconductor detector. The production rate of99mTc per g99Tc was linearly correlated with the flux of bremsstrahlung. The detection limit of99Tc was estimated to be nanogram order (0.63 Bq99Tc) under the optimum irradiation condition. Possible interference by100Ru(, p)99mTc reaction was also studied, which could be discriminated from the (,
) reaction by simultaneously occurring98Ru (, p)97Ru reaction.
Authors:T. Sekine, K. Yoshihara, I. Pavlicsek, L. Lakosi and Á. Veres
A liquid scintillation counting technique was applied to measure the isotope103mRh /half life = 56.12 min/ which is difficult to detect because its -ray is of low energy and low emission probability. Tris-/2,4-pentanedionato/ rhodium /III/ /Rh/ acac/3/ was irradiated with bremsstrahlung of accelerated 3.2 MeV electrons by LINAC. The method has given a reliable calibration curve for the determination of103mRh radioactivity below Rh/acac/3 concentrations of 2 mM. The integrated cross section of103Rh/,
/103mRh determined by this method was found to be 6.8±3.4 b MeV at 3.2 MeV.
Authors:T. Sekine, K. Yoshihara, J. Sáfár, L. Lakosi and Á. Veres
The99Tc (, 3n)96Tc and99Tc (, 4n)95Tc reactions were studied by irradiation of target99Tc with bremsstrahlung from the linear electron accelerator of Tohoku University, up to 50 MeV -energy. The resulting96Tc (4.3 d) and95Tc (20 h) activities were determined by -spectrometry. The -flux was monitored by the99Tc (,
)99mTc reaction. Metallic copper and gold foils were used as additional flux monitors in front of and behind the samples. Their measured radioactivity was utilized for normalizing bremsstrahlung flux calculations, in order to determine reaction cross sections. Cross sections were also determined theoretically, performing calculations in the framework of a neutron cascade evaporation model. Above the (, 3n) and (, 4n) threshold energies the neutron emission channel was supposed to be the only open channel for deexcitation following photoabsorption. The preeguilibrium contribution was considered negligible. The experimental results obtained for the integrated cross section at 30 and 50 MeV fit reasonably well the calculated curves.
Authors:H. K. Pintér, K. K. Boros, E. Pálfi and G. Veres
In this study we assessed nutritional intake, body composition, and their relationship in patients with paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 38 patients' nutritional intake using 3-day food records (FR) and bioimpedance analysis of body composition. FR were evaluated by Nutricomp DietCAD software. Results were analysed with Microsoft Excel 2013 and IBM SPSS Statistics 22 software.
Patients treated with biological and conventional therapy (CT) had a higher intake of vegetable protein and carbohydrate from starch than those treated earlier with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in the remission phase (F = 5.926, F = 5.130, P < 0.05). The former EEN group had a higher intake of iron compared to the other two groups (F = 3.967, P = 0.036). Protein intake and fat-free mass (FFM) had a significant positive correlation, while added sugar correlated with body fat mass (BFM) in the same way (R2 = 0.122, R2 = 0.169, P < 0.05). Body-fat mass in patients of the biological therapy (BT) group overstepped the healthy median, and the FFM in the EEN group stayed under it.
Our results confirm that it is essential to monitor body composition and not only measure body weight. Patients should be advised based on their body composition, therapy, and phase of the disease.
Authors:T. Harangozó, Gy. Pernesz, A. Veres, K. Tóth-Lencsés, L. Heszky and E. Kiss
The aim of this paper was to find possible link between molecular and morphological similarities of 38 Hungarian white grape varieties. Three aspects of morphological and molecular similarity were assessed in the study: comparison of the ordered variety pairs, assessment of molecular and morphological mean similarity differences and separation of varieties into similar groups by divisive cluster analysis to define (DIANA). Molecular similarity was calculated from binary data based on allele sizes obtained in DNA analysis. DNA fingerprints were determined at 9 SSR loci recommended by the European GrapeGen06 project. Morphological similarity was calculated on the basis of quantitative morphological descriptors. Morphological and molecular similarity values were ordered and categorized after pairwise comparison. Overall correlation was found to be weak but case by case assessment of the variety pairs confirmed some coincidence of molecular and morphological similarity. General similarity position of each variety was characterized by Mean Similarity Index (MSI). It was calculated as the mean of n-1 pair similarity values of the variety concerned. Varieties were ordered and compared by the difference of the index. Five varieties had low morphological and high molecular MSI meaning that they share several SSR marker alleles with the others but seems relatively distinct according to the expression of their morphological traits. Divisive cluster analysis was carried out to find similar groups. Eight and twelve cluster solutions proved to be sufficient to distinct varieties. Morphological and molecular similarity groups partly coincided according to the results. Several clusters reflected parent offspring relations but molecular clustering gave more realistic results concerning pedigree.
Authors:J. Sáfár, L. Lakosi, I. Pavlicsek, A. Veres, T. Sekine and K. Yoshihara
99mTc production was studied with the aid of photoexcitation by a 4 MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung from the LINAC of the Institute of Isotopes, Budapest. The intensity of the -flux was monitored by disc-shaped natural indium plates, placed in front of and behind the small cylindrical aluminium holders containing TcO2 samples in a powder form. Isomeric activities were measured through the 140 keV -line by a Ge spectrometer. The integral cross section at 4 MeV was found to be 63.3±7.1 bMeV, which can be considered reasonable compared to the corresponding value of 55.3 bMeV established for the115In (,
)115mIn reaction. We also attempted the photoexcitation of99mTc by irradiation with -rays from a 1.5×1015 Bq60Co source, but no isomeric activity could be observed. This places the first activation level between 1.33 and 4 MeV.