Authors:K. Tomolya, D. Janovszky, A. Sycheva, M. Sveda, T. Ferenczi, and A. Roósz
Six compositions in (Cu49Zr45Al6)100 − x − yNixTiy (x = 0, 5, 10; y = 0, 5, 10) system were selected in order to investigate the amorphization progress caused by milling. The initial structure of the powders before milling, type, and composition of the phases and their influence on the amorphization process were examined. CuZr phase was found to be determinative phase of amorphization process; however, its size does not influence it significantly in this system. CuZr fully dissolved the alloying elements, so that Ni and Ti phases do not appear as independent phases. In most cases, after 15 h of milling, the powders had amorphous structure with a few nanosized crystalline particles. It was shown that addition of both 10% Ti and 10% Ni to the alloy was an optimum condition to get stable, amorphous structure already after 12 h of ball milling.
Authors:S.-C. Ye, L.-Y. Hu, K.-D. Hu, Y.-H. Li, H. Yan, X.-Q. Zhang, and H. Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be a gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this work, we studied the role of H2S in alleviating salinity stress during wheat grain germination (Triticum aestivum L. Yangmai 158). Pretreatment with NaHS, a H2S donor, during wheat grain imbibition, could significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of salinity stress on wheat germination. NaHS-pretreated grain showed higher amylase and esterase activities than water control. NaHS pretreatment differentially stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced NaCl-induced changes in plasma membrane integrity in the radicle tips of seedlings compared with water control. We conclude that H2S plays an important role in protecting wheat grain from oxidative damage induced by salinity stress.
Authors:Bernadette Kun, Zsofia K. Takacs, Mara J. Richman, Mark D. Griffiths, and Zsolt Demetrovics
During the past three decades, research interest in work addiction has increased significantly. Most definitions concerning work addiction have specifically contained personality-related elements. However, the results of empirical studies concerning personality and work addiction are both few and mixed. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of personality in the background of work addiction.
The present study systematically reviewed and empirically carried out a meta-analysis on all the published studies examining the association between personality variables and work addiction (n = 28).
The results of the meta-analysis indicated that perfectionism, global and performance-based self-esteem, and negative affect had the strongest and most robust associations as personality risk factors of work addiction. Among the Big Five traits, extraversion, conscientiousness, and intellect/imaginations showed positive relationships with work addiction. However, these associations were weak.
Based on the meta-analysis, personality appears to explain only a small amount of the variance of work addiction and further studies are needed to assess the interaction between individual and environmental factors.
Authors:Cs. Dobolyi, K. Inotai, I. Bata-Vidács, D. Sárkány, O. Csernus, S. Kocsubé, B. Tóth, A. Szekeres, and J. Kukolya
Aspergillus strains were isolated from Hungarian mills in order to get information on the appearance of sterigmatocystin (ST) producing moulds, whose presence has never been demonstrated in Hungary. Fungal isolates were classified into nine morphotypes, sections Nigri, Nidulantes, Versicolores (two morphotypes), Circumdati, Flavi (two morphotypes), Clavati and Terrei by classical mycological assays. ST producing strains could be classified into section Versicolores. ST production of the isolates was assessed by liquid and solid phase growth experiments and compared to ST producing reference strains: Aspergillus pepii SzMC 22332, Aspergillus versicolor SzMC 22333, Aspergillus griseoaurantiacus SzMC 22334 and Aspergillus nidulans RDIT9.32. Four of our isolates marked as Km11, Km14, Km26 and Km31 showed ST production in liquid medium. ST production on solid phase corn grit substrate was measured after three weeks of incubation, and Km26 isolate proved to be the most prominent with a toxin concentration of 277.1 μg g−1, surpassing all reference strains. The toxin-producing ability of Km26 isolate was also tested in a field experiment, where corn was infected. By the end of the experiment, ST level of 19.56 μg kg−1 was measured in infected corn.
Molecular taxonomic identification of the Km26 strain was performed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), calmodulin and tubulin sequence analyses. Based on these studies, strain Km26 was identified as Aspergillus creber.
Here we report that an ST-producing A. creber strain has appeared in Hungary, and the Km26 strain is the first known extreme ST-producing mould in this country. As a result of climate change, aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus strains have appeared in Hungary in the last decade. As strain Km26 is the only A. creber isolate in Hungary so far, there is no sign of mass prevalence, and due to the lower temperature optimum of the species compared to A. flavus, its appearance is probably not related to climate change.
Authors:N. Almási, Z. Murlasits, A. Al-awar, Á. Csonka, S. Dvorácskó, C. Tömböly, S. Török, D. Bester, A. Pósa, C. Varga, and K. Kupai
Aging is a multifactorial process, which is considered as a decline over time. It is increasingly clear that there is a gender difference in aging and in the prevalence of age-related diseases as well. We aimed to examine the effects of the aging process in the colonic tissue of female Wistar rats aged 10 weeks (young) and 13 months (middle-aged) at an early stage, according to three main symptoms associated with aging: a decrease in the efficacy of the proteasome and muscle function and an increase in oxidative stress. The aging process was found to cause a significant decrease in ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase ligase (UCHL-1) and a significant increase in 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), total glutathione (GSH), calcium (Ca2+), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in middle-aged animals. In summary, it is suggested that the reduced activity of the proteasomal degradation system may be the result of the diminished expression of the UCHL-1 enzyme and the decreased levels of ubiquitin; furthermore, we found some key targets which may help to better understand the fundamental aging process.
Authors:Zs. Sári, T. Kovács, T. Csonka, M. Török, É. Sebő, J. Toth, D. Tóth, E. Mikó, B. Kiss, D. Szeőcs, K. Uray, Zs. Karányi, I. Kovács, G. Méhes, P. Árkosy, and P. Bai
Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.
Authors:M. Tóth, A. Nagy, I. Szarukán, K. Ary, A. Cserenyec, B. Fenyődi, D. Gombás, T. Lajkó, L. Merva, J. Szabó, P. Winkler, and J. K. Jósvai
The addition of synthetic (E)-anethol to the known attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, the blend invariably catching 4 to 6 times more than phenylacetaldehyde on its own. Highest catches were recorded by the 1:1-3:1 blends. The addition of salicyl aldehyde, ±linalool, (R)-(+)-limonene, 2-methoxybenzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (compounds described earlier in the literature as co-attractants for H. armigera), increased catches when added to phenylacetaldehyde. However, the addition of these compounds did not increase catches of the (E)-anethol+pheny- lacetaldehyde blend. When directly compared with performance of the synthetic pheromone, the (E)-anethol +phenylacetaldehyde blend caught an average of 27% of the catch in pheromone baited traps. On an average 79% of moths caught in traps with the (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend were females, while traps with pheromone caught only males. The (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend described in this study may form the basis for the development of an efficient bisexual lure for H. armigera AFTER further optimization.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, D. K. Upreti, G. K. Mishra, M. Haji Moniri, E. Farkas, J. S. Park, B. G. Lee, D. Liu, J.-J. Woo, R. G. U. Jayalal, S.-O. Oh, and J.-S. Hur
Data on 54 new for China, India, Korea and Russia species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, including 22 new for science taxa of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, i.e.: Acarospora ulleungdoensis, Amandinea trassii, Aspicilia geumodoensis, Biatora ivanpisutii, Caloplaca patwolseleyae, Catillaria ulleungdoensis, Coenogonium agonimieoides, Gyalidea austrocoreana, G. ropalosporoides, Opegrapha briancoppinsii, O. ulleungdoensis, Phyllopsora loekoesii, Psoroglaena coreana, Psorotichia gyelnikii, Rinodina oxneriana, Scoliciosporum jasonhurii, Staurothele oxneri, Stigmidium coarctatae, Thelocarpon ulleungdoense, Thelopsis loekoesii, Toninia poeltiana, Unguiculariopsis helmutii, and and 7 new species to China (Caloplaca ussuriensis, Megaspora rimisorediata, Rinodina xanthophaea, Rusavskia dasanensis, Xanthoria splendens, Zeroviella coreana, Z. esfahanensis), and 1 new species to India (Zeroviella esfahanensis), and 24 new species to Korea (Agonimia blumii, Arthonia rinodinicola, Buelliella minimula, Dactylospora australis, Endococcus propinguus, Halecania santessonii, Laeviomyces aff. fallaciosus, Lecanora albescens, L. layana, Lecidella scabra, Micarea farinosa, Minutoexcipula aff. mariana, Opegrapha anomaea, O. aff. xerica, Phoma aff. lecanorina, Polycoccum rubellianae, Porina nucula, Pyrenidium actinellum, Rhexophiale rhexoblephara, Rimularia badioatra, Rinodina confragosa, R. milvina, R. occulta, Tremella phaeophysciae), as well as 1 new species to Russia (Verseghya klarae) are provided. Furthermore new for science species of lichenicolous fungus Polycoccum clauderouxii from China is described. Four new combinations, i.e.: Biatora pseudosambuci (Basionym: Lecanora pseudosambuci S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Buellia pseudosubnexa (Basionym: Hafellia pseudosubnexa S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Buellia extremoorientalis (Basionym: Hafellia extremorientalis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), and Sagedia nunatakkorum (Basionym: Lecanora nunatakkorum Poelt) are proposed. Data on conidiomata and conidia for lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha anomea Nyl are for the first time provided.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, C. Roux, D. K. Upreti, F. Schumm, G. K. Mishra, S. Nayaka, E. Farkas, J. S. Park, B. G. Lee, D. Liu, J.-J. Woo, and J.-S. Hur
Eighteen new to science species, i.e.: 13 taxa from South Korea (Astroplaca loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr., E. Farkas, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Buellia ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Candelariella hakulinenii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Flavoplaca laszloana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Lichenostigma epiporpidiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Mikhtomia geumohdoensis S. Y. Kondr., Liu D. et J.-S. Hur, Orientophila dodongensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Physcia orientostellaris S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Placynthiella hurii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös, Protoparmeliopsis kopachevskae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Psoroglaena sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca kaernefeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Vezdaea poeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J. Halda et J.-S. Hur), two species from India (Rusavskia indica S. Y. Kondr. et D. K. Upreti, and R. upretii S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra et S. Nayaka), and two species from Atlantic Europe, i.e.: Spain and Portugal (Xanthoria schummii S. Y. Kondr. and X. lapalmaensis F. Schumm et S. Y. Kondr.), as well as a lichenicolous fungus Leptosphaeria Oxneriae Cl. Roux et S. Y. Kondr. from Asia (Russia and India) are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Forty species of lichen forming and lichenicolous fungi (i.e.: Acarospora cf. rufescens, Agonimia allobata, A. aff. blumii, Anema decipiens, Anisomeridium aff. albisedum, Bacidia laurocerasi, Cercidospora aff. epipolytropa, C. aff. lobothallia, Dictyocatenulata alba, Fuscopannaria dissecta, Lecanora ussuriensis, Lecidella aff. carpatica, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Leptosphaeria crozalsii, Lichenostigma cf. bolacinae, L. aff. rupicolae, Lichinella stipatula, L. cribellifera, L. iodopulchra, L. aff. myriospora, Melaspilea proximella, Micarea alabastrites, Opegrapha aff. thelotrematis, Orientophila leucerythrella, Pectenia plumbea, Placynthium tantaleum, Porpidia flavicunda, Psorula rufonigra, Pyrenocarpon aff. thelostomum, Pyrenodesmia duplicata, Pyrenopsis aff. haematina, Ramboldia haematites, Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans, Rimularia gibbosa, Rinodina oxydata, Staurothele frustulenta, Stigmidium cf. clauzadei, Strigula australiensis, Thelenella luridella, Vezdaea leprosa) are for the first time recorded for Korea. Additional locality records for South Korea (74 species) and China (3 species) are also given.
Four new combinations, i.e.: Orientophila chejuensis (for Caloplaca chejuensis S. Y. Kondr. et Hur), Orientophila diffluens (for Lecanora diffluens Hue), Orientophila leucerythrella (for Lecanora leucerythrella Nyl.), and Pyrenodesmia duplicata (for Lecanora duplicata Vain.) are also proposed.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, D. K. Upreti, S. Nayaka, G. K. Mishra, S. Ravera, M.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Jang, J. S. Park, and J.-S. Hur
Seventeen robust monophyletic branches newly discovered in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae after separate nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU, as well as combined phylogenetic analysis are proposed to consider as the following separate genera: Dijigiella S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös gen. nov. for the D. kaernefeltiana group, Elixjohnia S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Sirenophila jackelixii group, Fominiella S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the F. tenerifensis group; Gintarasiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca aggregata, Hanstrassia S. Y. Kondr. gen. nov. for the Elenkiniana lenae group, Harusavskia S. Y. Kondr. gen. nov. for H. elenkinianoides sp. n., Huriella S. Y. Kondr. et D. Upreti gen. nov. for H. loekoesiana sp. n., Ikaeria S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca aurantiellina, Klauderuiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Variospora thallincola group, Laundonia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Gyalolechia flavovirescens group, Lazarenkoiopsis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca ussuriensis, Nevilleiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca marchantii group, Opeltia S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös gen. nov. for the Caloplaca neobaltistanica group, Oxneriopsis S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca oxneri group, Teuvoahtiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca rugulosa group, Tomnashia S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Polycauliona rosei group, and Xanthaptychia S. Y. Kondr. et S. Ravera gen. nov. for the Seirophora orientalis group.
Hitherto missing molecular data on three gene sequences of the type species of the genera Seirophora and Sirenophila are completed within this study.
Six new to science species (Dijigiella kaernefeltiana S. Y. Kondr. sp. n., D. subaggregata S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt sp. n., Fominiella tenerifensis S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et T. Feuerer sp. n., Hanstrassia jaeseounhurii S. Y. Kondr., Ch.-H. Park et L. Lőkös sp. n., Harusavskia elenkinianoides S. Y. Kondr., X. Y. Wang, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur sp. n., Huriella loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et D. Upreti sp. n.) are described, compared with closely related taxa.
A total of 34 new combinations for genera mentioned above are proposed.